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Encyclopedia of the Palestine Problem




For twenty-three years the Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza have been living under military occupation. On June 20, 1988 The Jerusalem Press reported the remarks made in Tel Aviv by Professor Yeshuahu Levovitch "likening Israeli soldiers in the occupied areas to Nazi occupation troops in Europe in the Second World War. He said that some Israelis have a Gestapo mentality and the current situation in the occupied territories is a predictable outcome of Israeli occupation of Palestinian lands."

The Israeli government is responsible for the fact that Palestinians have been assaulted, murdered, humiliated and abased. From 1967 up to the present day, more than 100,000 Palestinian men and women have been put either in jails or concentration camps and subjected to torture. Before the Intifada there were 4,000 Palestinian men and women incarcerated in jails or concentration camps; there are now over 10,000 Palestinian men and women in jails or concentration camps, where they are being tortured by the most barbaric methods. The Palestinians have been collectively punished. Thousands of their homes have been demolished or sealed. Sixty percent of their lands have been usurped for the settlement of Jewish colonies. Ninety percent of Palestinian waters have been usurped for Jewish settlements. 165 settlements have been established on usurped Palestinian lands and 80,000 Israelis moved to these settlements. The Palestinian economy has been destroyed. Fanners, deprived of their lands andlivelihood, have become workers in order to support their families. Palestinians have been impoverished by illegal levies of confiscatory taxes. Many Palestinian Mayors, civic and religious leaders, professors, teachers, journalists and labor leaders have been expelled to neighboring Arab countries, thereby disrupting their family lives and punishing their families. Their human, civil and religious rights have beenviolated. They are being ruled by military administration in the same brutal way that the Nazis ruled Occupied Europe during World War II.

The Jewish settlers are always armed with machine guns. They harass, insult, humiliate and assault Palestinians. They have murdered hundreds of Palestinians. They have encroached on Palestinian lands, in addition to the lands which have already been usurped. The Zionist authorities and settlers uproot olive and fruit trees from Palestinian lands. They desecrate Muslim Mosques and attack Muslims during prayer. They constantly encroach on the area of Al-Masjid Al-Aksa in Jerusalem. In 1969 they tried to burn that Holy Shrine. They attacked, murdered and wounded many Muslims while they were praying there. Jewish settlers and many of the Zionist war criminals constantly tell Palestinians that "this land is the land of Israel and that you Arabs should leave and go to Arab countries where you belong."

Many Zionist leaders openly or covertly advocate the expulsion of the 1.5 million Palestinians from the West Bank and Gaza, in the same way that they expelled 700,000 Palestinians from the areas they occupied in 1948 to Lebanon, Jordan, Syria, and the Gaza Strip, and expelled in the same way 300,000 more Palestinians in 1967.

The continued abasement, frustration and persecution of Palestinians perpetrated by the Zionists finally led to a spontaneous explosion among the entire Palestinian populace on December 9, 1988 in what has come to be known as the Intifada, or Palestinian National uprising.

The brutal suppression of the Palestinian uprising which began in December, 1987 has shocked the conscience of the world. For forty years the Israelis have perpetrated inhuman crimes against a defenceless Palestinian populace. Largely ignored by the outside world, these Zionist crimes executed behind closed doors took place side by side with the creation of the false image of a "democratic Israeli society" spread by the omnipresent Zionist propaganda machine. But, since December 1987 the Palestinian population, defending itself with bare hands andstones against bullets, has shown the face of Zionist tyranny for what it is.

The image of a "benign" Israeli occupation has been shattered forever, and the Palestinian uprising shows no signs of abating until its goals, shared by the entire Palestinian people, of an independent Palestinian national homeland, are achieved. The methods of suppressing the Palestinian Intifada have stripped Zionist propaganda of any credibility. Zionist war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide being daily perpetrated on the Palestinian people are not new, but they are now revealed for the world to see.


On November 30, 1987, the fortieth anniversary of the 1947 UN partition resolution, there were widespread demonstrations protesting the immolation of the Palestinian national territory and identity. "Hundreds demonstrated and threw stones at the Israeli armed forces, which used tear gas and bullets to disperse the demonstrators in Khan Yunis. In Rafah demonstrations broke out and students hoisted Palestinian flags. Israeli soldiers arrived and dispersed the demonstrations. Occupation authorities continued their wide scale arrests among the students of Bethlehem University." (1)

On December 1, 1987, "the Israeli military governor issued an order prohibiting travel by the residents of the Jabalia camp after the recent demonstrations on the 40th anniversary of the partition resolution." (2) "Four Palestinians were injured in Khan Yunis when the army forces used truncheons and rubber bullets to disperse demonstrators. Clashes also took place between the army and Palestinians in the Al Amal neighborhood, which resulted in the injury of five women." (3)

Meanwhile, the piecemeal annexation of the West Bank and Gaza was continuing by means of Israeli destruction of the Palestinian agricultural patrimony. On December 2,1987, "a large army force uprooted 400 olive trees and 200 vines planted in lands near Husan village, Bethlehem subdistrict. The lands are owned by three brothers, Ahrnad, Abd El Aziz and Abd El Hameed Shousheh. The trees and vines were uprooted by bulldozers, which also took out the wire fence surrounding the 30 dunums of land. The authorities confiscated the land on the pretext that it is state land, yet its owners have all the papers that prove their ownership." (4)

Also on December 2, "Shepherds in the Jordan valley area complained about the continuous chasing of their herds by the Israeli Green Patrol, causing them losses of livestock and more suffering." (5)

The illegal deportations which have marked the Israeli occupation since its beginning were continuing. On December 2, 1987 "Amiram Mitsna, Israeli Commander of the central region, issued an order to deport Jamal Hindi, age 29, a resident of Jenin camp and a student in An-Najah University, Nablus." (6)

The brutal demolition and sealing of Palestinian homes also continued. On December 3, "the Israeli military governor in Deir Al Balah, Gaza, issued an order prohibiting the family of Misbah As Souri from building a new house over the remains of his demolished one. The As Souri family, which consists of 28 members, is presently living in neighbors' houses." (7)

The inhumane treatment of Palestinian prisoners by the Zionists also continued. On December 8, 1987 lawyer "Jawad Boulos filed a complaint concerning the prisoners' conditions in Tulkarm Security Prison. The Prison Administration had not allowed the prisoners to go out for their daily stroll in the prison yard. The prisoners suffer from overcrowding, with twenty prisoners made to live in a 8 x 3 meter room and 15 in a 4 x 4 meter room. Their food is not fresh nor is it nourishing. They are also exposed to bad treatment during the daily count of prisoners in the rooms." (8)

On December 9, 1987, "prisoner Waleed Jarrar from Jenin prison appealed against the interrogators in the Shin Bet who had tortured him and threatened to kill him." (9)

Thus the immediate background of the massive spontaneous national uprising of the Palestinian people begun on December 9, 1987 was the continuation of the oppressive Israeli policies going back to June 1967, at the start of the occupation itself.


The Intifada did not need "fomenters"or "instigators." The real fomentors were the Zionists themselves, through forty years of oppression and genocide. Finally, the Palestinian people simply said "enough is enough" and with bare hands faced their occupiers in a confrontation that will not end until Palestinian self-determination is achieved.

The Intifada has not been without painful losses. By the sixth day of the uprising, the number of "dead Palestinians who were shot by Israeli occupying forces was eight, with more than two hundred wounded, as well as hundreds of students and Palestinian youths arrested and detained. The Palestinians under occupation, who have been victims of the 'Iron Fist' policy of the Israeli army and occupation authorities. were determined to resist by all means the Israeli occupation which fell on them in 1967." (10)

"The uprifsing began on December 9, through demonstrations and burning of tires and stoning of military vehicles throughout the Gaza Strip. On December 11, a woman, a girl and a young boy were killed in Balata camp near Nablus, in the West Bank, as well as a young boy in Nablus." (11)

Following are accounts of incidents representative of the Intifada and in particular of Israeli attempts to suppress it, from December 1987 through April 1990. The accounts are drawn from the daily reports of the Jerusalem Press Service, which has gained a considerable reputation for the accuracy of its reporting.


In Balata refugee camp near Nablus 200 homes were leveled by Zionist troops, and over 50 Palestinians were injured, some of whom subsequently died. On December 13, 1987 a correspondent from the Hebrew newspaper Haaretz visited Balata camp and recorded the following observations:

'Furniture and household items were broken, as well as windows of houses. Cars were demolished and many people had marks of beating and torture.

"The home of Mahmoud Tawfik Abu Naqieh, age 55, was in shambles. Windows were broken, frames were removed from their place, a new recording machine was broken, as well as two closets and a table. The contents were demolished and pictures which bear passages from the Holy Koran were torn apart and wall clocks were destroyed. Some china and ceramic items were completely broken.

"The resident of the camp said to the reporter: 'A group of soldiers knocked at our door Friday, saying they were looking for the boys and youngsters. I told them I have no children, but they insisted on entering the house. I opened the door and 12 soldiers forced their way inside. Three of them attacked me and beat me up. Three others pointed their guns toward my 70 year old aunt. There were no other people in the house and after they found nothing they began destroying everything. I pleaded for them to stop, but they continued beating me up.'

'The 70 year old aunt, Amanah Abdallah Al Qishta, said that one of the soldiers stuck his gun in her chest and cursed her with nasty language, calling her a 'bitch.' After they finished they threw two tear gas canisters inside the house, almost choking her to death." (12)


Fueled by the barbaric, heavy-handed oppression of the Zionist occupying troops such as that at the Balata camp, the Palestinian uprising grew on its own momentum. By December 16,1987 "a general strike for the second consecutive day where shops were closed and students refused to attend schools" ear-marked non-violent Palestinian resistance. "There were demonstrations in several parts of the city of Jerusalem, which included Salah Al Din Street. Bab Al Amoud, Jabal Al Zaiton 'Mount of Olives,' Shuofat camp, Qalandia camp and Jabal Al Mukaber. Demonstrators were dispersed by live bullets and tear gas canisters." (13)

The myth of the much-heralded "bravery" and "purity of arms" of the Zionist armed forces was shattered for the world to see. Palestinian youths with bare hands and stones from the streets met face to face with the alleged Zionist "supermen." The Zionists responded with live ammunition and tear gas.

The same took place in Nablus, where "in Askar camp there was a demonstration on December 16 with a general strike in schools, the stoning of Israeli patrol vehicles and the raising of the Palestinian flag in the camp. The Zionists arrested three youngsters, Hosam Abu Janeleh, age 19, Hassan Abu Jameleh, age 24, and Aymm Attiyeh al Faour, age 18.

"Then there was a massive march in the old city of Nablus where Palestinian flags were raised and pro-PLO banners carried by the marchers. Confrontation between the demonstrators and Israeli forces took place in Sheik Musalem area, Hitin Street, the main square in Nablus." (14)


Meanwhile, on December 16, 1987 in Ramallah "a general strike was in its fifth day. There were demonstrations and stoning of vehicles in Al Amaari camp, Al Jabron and Qalandia and theclosing of streets with barricades and burning tires. There was a protest march in Al Mansra Square with a serious confrontation between Israeli soldiers and the citizens. There was a renewal of demonstrations in Beir Zit, where there was the setting fire to tires and the stoning of Israeli soldiers. The Israeli army put Al Jalazon camp under siege after massive demonstrations broke out and imposed a curfew on the camp. They arrested Mohamed Khaled Al Romhi who had been wounded by Israeli bullets two days before.

"Israeli soldiers forced merchants to open their shops after breaking down the doors of these shops. The Military Court in Ramallah sentenced Bashir Al Tamini to prison for three years on charges that he belonged to Fatah, and sentenced Khaled Attaleh on charges that he instigated the demonstrations and stone throwing." (15)

So, in Ramallah the Zionist troops bravely broke down the doors of the shops of merchants whose stores were closed, and sentenced the "two culprits" who were behind the demonstrations and stoning! Or so they would have people believe.

In Hebron on December 16 demonstrators "stoned two military vehicles, damaging their glass windows. There were demonstrations, stone throwing at Israeli troops and the setting up of barricades in the streets. There weredemonstrations at the Polytechnic Institution, the closing of streets, raising the Palestinian flag and confrontation with the Israeli forces.

"The Israeli army threw tear gas canisters at the demonstrators and shot at them with rubber bullets." (16)

Also on December 16 there was "a general commercial strike and demonstrations in Jenin. In Al Dheisheh camp there were massive demonstrations displaying banners condemning the occupation and stone throwing at Israeli vehicles. The Israeli army fired on residents of Al Dheisheh camp in a frenzied way." (17)


In the Gaza Strip December 16th marked "the continuation of demonstrations for the 8th day in a row. In Al Shati camp Palestinian flags were displayed, tires were set on fire and barricades were set up. Many youths were detained by the Israeli troops, among them 14 year old Wayel Hamdan Afaneh.

"In the Gaza Strip, Port Street was closed with burned tires and hundreds of citizens went into the streets, raising Palestinian flags and pictures of martyrs and black banners. Commercial stores were closed and classes in all schools were canceled.

"Israeli troops broke the bones of Ziad Al Soweiti, age 20, and Ahmad Ali Hassouneh, age 6, both from Al Shati camp.

"In the Al Rimal area classes were canceled and there were student demonstrations with barricades set up in the streets and Israeli military vehicles stoned.

"There was a general commercial strike in Palestine Square and Omar Al Mukhtar street with Palestinian flags displayed. Barricades were set up in Al Shojaieh street and Israeli military patrol cars were stoned. Tens of citizens were arrested for taking part in the massive demonstrations.

"Massive demonstrations raising Palestinian flags took place in Rafah and Israeli military vehicles were stoned. Palestinian workers refused to go to their places of work in Israel.


''Journalists, photographers and representatives of the world television networks were prohibited from entering Al Shifa Hospital Yard based on an official order from the Israeli Prime Minister's Office." (18)

Perhaps Yitshak Shamir was afraid that the representatives of the world's media might be accosted by a dangerous Palestinian nationalist such as the wounded six-year old Ahmad Ali Hassouneh!

Ezer Weizman, Zionist Minister Without Portfolio, aptly described so-called Prime Minister Shamir's attempt to prohibit foreign press from entering the West Bank and Gaza as "undemocratic, stupid and useless." (19)

Meanwhile, on December 16, "Palestinian journalists held a two hour sit-in strike at the Arab Journalists Association headquarters in Jerusalem protesting the six month administrative detention order put on the Head of the Association, Radwan Abu Ayyash," (20) He must have had the audacity of desiring to print the news!


Another courageous act was the housewarming for his new house in East Jerusalem given by Zionist war criminal Ariel Sharon. The so-called war hero had "a large army and police force guarding the house. Radio Israel called this step of Sharon's a provocation."

"A number of Palestinian youths demonstrated near the house and were dispersed by border guards using tear gas canisters. A Peace Now demonstration against Sharon's action took place at Damascus Gate." (21)

Also on December 16th "Hebrew University campus in Jerusalem was the site of a joint demonstration of Jews and Arab students in solidarity with the Palestinian uprising and protesting the killing of civilians by Israeli soldiers. Extremist Jewish students tried to disturb the demonstration, but failed." (22)

The deaths and wounding of Palestinian demonstrators guilty of raising their national flag in their own homeland destroyed decades of myth-making by the Zionist propaganda apparatus. Born in spontaneous frustration, the Palestinian National uprising won an objective it had not even sought - the destruction of the Zionist edifice of lies and brainwashing foisted on an unwitting public throughout the world.


On December 17th, "Dr. Yosi Bilin, the director general for political affairs of the Israeli foreign ministry, admitted that it is the first time after the Israeli occupation of Lebanon that Israel faces such worldwide condemnation." (23)

The Zionists had not only brainwashed public opinion abroad. They themselves had become victims of their own brainwashing that "Zionists can do no wrong." They cannot justify this in the face of such "news as reported in their newspaper Haaretz of a less than two day old Palestinian infant severely injured by tear gas bombs used by the Israeli army and clinging to life at Al Shifa Hospital in Gaza." (24)

The Hebrew language newspaper said: "The attempt to accuse the media outlets that it stirs the instincts through the relay of reports about what is happening is a desperate attempt to escape from the truth, as if what is not carried by the media does not occur." (25)

If the Zionist leadership still tried to live in a "never-never" land, their soldiers, stripped of their "superman" status, had to begin removing their heads from the sand.


"An Israeli army spokesman said that demonstrations and protest continued on December 16 in various parts of the Gaza Strip and the West Bank, for the 7th consecutive day. He added that a number of demonstrators attacked an Israeli patrol in Rafah and stabbed a soldier in the neck.

"Soldiers in that patrol opened fire on the assailants wounding four, one of them in the spine, who is in critical condition. Radio Israel reported that a Molotov cocktail was thrown at an Israeli military vehicle in front of Al Shifa hospital in Gaza.

"Israeli soldiers opened fire and arrested a number of youths. Demonstrations had broken out in the Strip, and soldiers opened fire and threw tear-gas canisters to disperse them.

'In Rafah, where the army imposed a curfew after the stabbing incident, settlers attacked the residents and opened fire on them. In Jerusalem, a general strike was observed for the second consecutive day, and a number of demonstrations were reported in various parts of the city. Israeli police dispersed a student demonstration at Damascus Gate using tear-gas, causing a number of injuries due to the gas. Four were arrested and charged with throwing stones at Israeli vehicles in Ar Ram area, on the Jerusalem-Ramallah main road.

"In Nablus the strike continued, and a number of residents roamed the streets of the old city carrying flags and slogans. A large army force arrived and fired rubber bullets and tear-gas canisters to disperse the demonstrators. In Al Rawda College, students threw stones at army forces and set tires ablaze. Israeli soldiers fired tear gas canisters and dispersed them. In Ramallah and Al Bireh, soldiers forced open shops. "In Jericho, schools went on strike and students threw stones at Israeli vehicles. Army forces immediately chased and arrested a number of them. In Hebron, army forces opened fire on Husein Ben All and Ibn Rushdi schools and the Polytechnic Institute.

"Najwa Hasan Al Masri, age 17, from Beit Hanoun, was reported killed when Israeli army forces opened fire at a demonstration two nights before in Deir Al Balah, following the burial of martyr Talal Hweihi. A number of Al Shifa hospital sources denied the report of journalists being taken hostage in the hospital and added that reporters receive all the help they need when they are visiting the Strip.

"The number of wounded in the strip reached nine. Radwan Abu Shmeis, 25, from Nusseirat, was in critical condition; Sa'ida Nasser, age 8, Samir Abd El Salam, age 23, from Jabalia, Majed Abu Al Hasan, age 26, from Al Rimal, Eyad Darabyeh, age 17, from Al Rimal, Munther Al Faseeh, age 18, from the beach camp, Mohammed Subeih, age 14, from the beach camp, and Ziad Al Ghoul, age 18, from the beach camp, were injured.

'Fouad Tamraz, age 14, from Deir Al Balah, was reported still alive in Tel Kashomer hospital where he was in critical condition. Tamraz was wounded with two bullets two days before. Abd El Malek Abu Hussein, Mohammad Jarghoun, and Wahid Abu Salem, the three who fell victims to Israeli army bullets, were buried on December 15 in Deir Al Balah.

"A demonstration was organized on December 16 in front of Shamir's residence in Jerusalem, in which a number of Arab and Jewish university students participated. Members of the campus movement and the Arab students' committee i at the Hebrew university, Israeli radio reported, carried slogans protesting the recent events in the occupied territories. The demonstrators numbered about 70 according to Radio Israel. Police forces arrived and asked the demonstrators to leave. On their refusal, police forces fired tear gas canisters and arrested a number of them, Radio Israel reported.

"A fire broke out in a bus station in Ramot quarter, West Jerusalem. Radio Israel reported that Israeli police arrested two fundamentalist Jews for interrogation after they found a gasoline tin in their car." (26)


Remarkably free of terrorist acts, the Intifada was basically by now an act of massive non-violent civil disobedience against the illegal Zionist occupation. Stones were only thrown at Israeli military vehicles and soldiers harassing peaceful demonstrators. But Zionist terrorism, official, and unofficial, as the above report shows, took place. Zionist leaders frantically searched for "causes" of the Intifada which could exculpate them from the real causes, their long history of war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide committed against the entire Palestinian population.


President of Israel Chaim Herzog, a war criminal in every Zionist war, in an interview with the BBC blamed "current events in the occupied territories on external factors, naming Syria, Libya and the PLO abroad," as if anyone could wave a magic wand igniting an entire population around imagined grievances! Yitshak Shamir blamed "news reporters" in the occupied territories. He was again answered by his Cabinet colleague Ezer Weizman, who said: "There is a real political problem in the occupied territories and blaming the TV cameras is to disregard the facts." (27)

In searching for external factors or media responsibility for the cause of the Intifada the Israeli leaders neglected to consider the possible effect of the prayers of the long-oppressed Palestinian population. But this possibility apparently did not escape the Israeli forces in Gaza, for on Friday, December 18, 1987 "at Al Moughrabi Mosque worshippers at prayer were subjected to tear gas bombs thrown at them by Israeli forces. Israelis also shot and wounded more than three worshippers." (28)


On the 18th of December the Palestinian uprising continued throughout the occupied territories:

In Gaza, "Abdul Salam Shihadeh Fatiha, age 29, from Al Breij camp, died this morning after sustaining bullet wounds in his head and heart. Maysara Al Batanji, age 20, of Al Shajaieh Street, was shot dead by Israeli soldiers. Nafith Kteifan, age 14, of Dier Al Balah camp, died of his wounds sustained on the previous Wednesday.

"In Rafah, citizens took part in a huge demonstration which covered the city and the camps. Burning tires closed the roads and the streets. Israeli forces retreated after seeing the huge demonstration. Demonstrators flocked to the house of the martyred Atwa Abu Samhadana, singing Palestinian resistance songs and carrying Palestinian flags.

'In Khan Yunis, demonstrators set tires on fire and made barricades while Israeli army units cordoned off the mosque. "At Al Shati camp demonstrators carrying Palestinian flags attacked Israeli army convoys with rocks. Israeli soldiers threw tear gas canisters and fired shots at them.

"In the central district demonstrators in Al Breij camp stoned Israeli troops with rocks and broken bottles. Israeli soldiers prevented ambulances from removing the wounded and closed the entrances to Al Breij camp.

"Israeli soldiers fired indiscriminately at Al Shifa Hospital where Palestinian youths had thrown rocks and broken bottles at Israeli soldiers.

"More than 3000 residents of Gaza walked in a huge demonstration. They raised the Palestinian flag and displayed defiance to the Israeli occupation forces." (29)

As the Christmas Holy Days approached in the Holy Land, the homeland of the "Prince of Peace" was drenched in the tears of the families of the unarmed, martyred Palestinians murdered in cold blood by the Zionists in their unsuccessful quest to exterminate the Palestinian uprising.


On December 22, 1987 "Rt. Rev. Samir Hanna Kafity, Anglican Bishop of Jerusalem and the Middle East, issued an appeal to all churches and organizations which are observing Christmas celebrations to limit their festivities to religious ceremonies in light of the tragic events in the occupied Holy Land.

"Bishop Kafity made the following appeal 'Because of the latest tragic events in the occupied territories, and as a show of support and solidarity with our men and women who were victimized in these events, and as a respect to the spiritual and human meaning of the birth of Christ, we decided to limit the celebrations in this season toonly thecustomary religious and spiritual ceremonies. We pray to Allah (God) that the foundation for justice and peace will be strengthened for all peoples."' (30)


On the day of Bishop Kafity's heartfelt appeal, reports from Jerusalem indicated that "at least five Palestinians had been murdered by Israeli bullets in the previous two days, while tens of Palestinians had been wounded, including a ten year old girl, Lubna Al Masri, from Hebron, who was in serious condition from bullet wounds in the chest. Three of the dead were from Jenin, in the northern part of the West Bank." (31)

"In addition to Yousef Al Saraerawi, Mahmoud Abu Azizeh and Muhamad Ali Al Ghoul, killed in Jenin on December 21, citizens in Tobas buried a boy and a girl, Basil Sawaftah and Nazek Sawaftah, who had been murdered by Israeli army bullets on Sunday, December 20.

"In Hebron, Mohamad Abdul Kader, age 25, was wounded in the head by an Israeli bullet and Mousa Abu Sabhah, age 13, was shot in the leg.

"Also on December 21, in Gaza, Mostafa Al Beik, age 17, received a bullet wound in the head and Yasser Al Heisi, age 14, received life-endangering wounds.

"In Nablus, Alia Al Borini, age 16, and the brothers Issam Abu Hantash, age 22, and Bassam Abu Hantash, age 20, were wounded by Israeli bullets.

'In Jenin, on December 2 1, Chassan Motalak, age 20, was wounded in the neck by an Israeli bullet.

"In Al Eisawish, near Jerusalem, five citizens received wounds in beatings perpetrated by Israeli soldiers against demonstrators." (32)

On December 21, 1987, the Zionist Military Authorities tried to suppress the Palestinian uprising with various coercive measures.

"In Hebron the Military Governor closed the Polytechnic Institution. He also summoned the correspondents of the Arab press for interrogation about their coverage of the civil disobedience engulfing the occupied territories.

'In the Gaza Strip demonstrations continued for the 14th consecutive day, along with the strikes and work stoppages, and Israeli troops forcibly broke into hundreds of houses in Jabalia refugee camp.

"Israeli soldiers broke into the Salah Al-Din Mosque in Al Zaitoneh district in Gaza, arresting the Muezzin, who calls for prayers and worship.

'In Rafah more than 300 residents were detained by Israeli troops and sent to various detention centers in the Gaza Strip." (33)


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Encyclopedia of the Palestine Problem
By Issa Nakhleh

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