Radio Islam logo

Zionism         Judaism         Jewish Power         Revisionism         Islam         About         Home

Encyclopedia of the Palestine Problem



Part 2 of 2



Despite the Norwegian fiasco, Mossad revived its murder campaign. On January 3, 1977 they shot dead Mahmoud Saleh, a representative of the PLO in France, outside of his bookshop in Paris. "Mr. Saleh, who was 38 years old, had previously been PLO representative in France in 1973, and remained a senior member of the organization.'' (44)

On January 4, 1978 Mossad murdered "Said Hammami, the representative in Britain of the Palestine Liberation Organization. He was shot three times, once in the head and twice in the body, with an automatic hand gun ...

"Mr. Hammami, aged 36, lived in London with his wife and two children. He was regarded as a moderate and had often spoken out against terrorism ...

"Born in Jaffa in 1941, Hammami shared the fate of thousands of Palestinians who became refugees in 1948. From then on, he grew up and was educated in Amman ...

"He believed passionately in his country, Palestine, and his people, the Palestinians. He knew that, as representative of the Palestine Liberation Organization, he was a possible target for Israeli killers ...

"Hammami won many friends in Britain, among journalists, politicians and trade unionists in particular, both by his humanity and by his willingness to speak frankly. It seems all too likely that it was for those very qualities that his killers wished to destroy him." (45)

Said Hammami is but one example of many Palestinians who were murdered by Mossad because they were gaining adherents to the Palestinian cause by peaceful means, totally disproving the Mossad propaganda that they were fighting "terrorists." Hammami was not only unconnected to any terrorist acts, he was an outspoken opponent of terrorist tactics. Therefore the Israeli terrorists murdered him.

On August 3, 1978 Mossad agents murdered, in "a vicious and bloody attack, the headof the Paris bureau of the Palestine Liberation Organization, Mr. Ezzedine Kalak, and his deputy, Mr. Hamad Adnan. They were killed at their offices in the Arab League building. Three other members of the League and PLO staff were wounded ...

"In a statement the French Foreign Ministry said that the French Government condemned this act of violence. The statement said Mr. Kalak had been involved in a constructive dialogue with the French authorities in his capacity as head of the PLO's information and liaison office in Paris ...

"Mr. Kalak had become a familiar figure in France through his television appearances pleading the Palestinian cause. Over the years Mr. Kalak had received many threats against his life and, although he was known to carry a pistol, he did not take exceptional precautions to protect himself." (46)

Thus a Mossad plot eliminated by murder another peaceful advocate of the Palestinian cause.

On January 22, 1979 a Mossad bomb killed "Ali Hassan Salameh, age 36, and at least four other people in an explosion in the heart of Beirut. His wife was six months pregnant at the time of his assassination. "Salameh's car was turned into a 'pile of melting metal' by the explosion according to an eyewitness. A Land-Rover escorting him was also destroyed.

"According to Palestinian officials who quickly cordoned off the area, Salameh was killed by a radio-controlled bomb, which may have been planted in a parked car on his route." (47)

"An English woman working in Lebanon was among passengers killed when a bomb exploded killing Ali Hassan Salameh, the Palestinian leader, in Beirut. She was Susan Wareham, age 34, whose parents live in Waltham Abbey." (48)

On July 25, 1979 "one of the three most senior members of the Palestine Liberation Organization, Zuheir Mohsen, was shot in the head as he returned to his flat in Cannes, an address known only to a few close associates.

"According to French police reports, two men were involved in the attack. They waited in a corridor of the Gray d'Albion building, where Mohsen had his flat.

"Palestinian officials quickly blamed Israel for the attack ... Mohsen, age 43, a large balding man, ranked only behind Yasser Arafat and Abu Jihad in the PLO." (49)

"Zuheir Mohsen died in a French hospital the next day." (50)

On December 15, 1979 Mossad agents in Nicosia, Cyprus, murdered two Palestinians, Ali Salem Ahmed and Ibrahim Abdul Azziz. "Both men were shot at point blank range and the assassins, who, police said, had used silencers on their weapons, escaped in a hired car...

"A police checkpoint less than 100 yards from the shooting had heard nothing, and the first indication of the incident was when Ali Salem Ahmed's Cypriot wife, Kyproulia, started to scream for help ... Greek Cypriot political leader Dr. Vassos Lyssarides issued a statement: 'We have, long ago, reported to the government and condemned the activities of Israeli agents in Cyprus. Now they have started to murder members of the diplomatic corps, and there can be no further tolerance. We demand the immediate closure of the Israeli Embassy here as this horrible crime is directed not only against the brotherly Palestinian people but against Cyprus.'

"The director general of the Cyprus Foreign Ministry, Mr. George Pelaghias, flew to Beirut with the coffins of the murdered Palestinians and called on Mr. Arafat and conveyed the personal condolences of President Kyprianou of Cyprus." (51)

On June 1, 198 1, a Mossad assassin shot and killed "Mr. Naim Khader, the Palestine Liberation Organization's representative in Brussels, Belgium.

"His assailant fired five or six shots from a 9mm calibre revolver, according to police sources. Hit in the chest and head, Mr. Khader fell to the pavement, bleeding profusely. He was dead by the time police and an ambulance arrived.

"Officials at the PLO information and liaison office, which Mr. Khader set up in Brussels in the mid-1970s, issued a statement attributing the attack 'without any doubt' to 'the Israeli Secret Service.'

"Mr. Khader, the statement declared, was simply the latest in a long line of 'Palestinian victims of Zionist aggression.' It called for support for the 'struggle of the Palestinian people. '

"At a press conference later, Mr. Abdullah Frangi, the PLO representative in Bonn, claimed the killing was part of an Israeli 'campaign to stop the recognition of the PLO by Western Europe.' The Israelis hoped that the PLO would be provoked into responding in kind and thereby lose European support, he said ...

"Mr. Khader, who was 41 and married to a Belgian, was widely respected in diplomatic circles in Brussels." (52)

On August 1, 1981 a Mossad agent shot and wounded Mr. Abu Daoud in Warsaw. "The attack took place in the coffee shop of the Victoria Intercontinental Hotel in Warsaw, Poland. The victim was sitting alone and was approached by a man in his twenties who shot him five times ...

"PLO sources believed the Israeli security services were responsible for the shooting." (53)

On the morning of October 10, 1981 a Mossad bomb killed Mr. Majed Abu Sharar, when it "exploded in his hotel room in Rome, Italy.

"The author of several books and a senior member of the Fateh organization, Mr. Abu Sharar was in Italy to attend a Palestinian writers' conference. The Israeli intelligence services placed the bomb beneath Mr. Abu Sharar's bed." (54)

On March 1, 1982 Mr. Nabil Wadi Aranki, a 34 year old Palestinian, "was shot dead in Madrid, Spain. The Palestine Liberation Organization blamed the killing on Mossad, the Israeli secret service.

"A man approached Mr. Nabil Wadi Aranki from behind as he walked in the street near his home and shot him twice in the back of the head, police said ... He was born in Haifa, had lived in Spain since 1972 and studied Pharmacy in Salamanca, the Spanish news agency said." (55)

On June 17, 1982, "two senior officials of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) in Italy were murdered in separate attacks. The PLO immediately blamed Israel. Kamal Husain, deputy director of the PLO offices in Rome, was killed by a shrapnel bomb which had been placed under the back seat of his car, police said. Mr. Nazeyh Matar, a student and another leading figure in the PLO Rome office, was shot dead outside his home by three men who trapped him in his garage. A PLO statement accused Israel of 'trying to physically annihilate political cadres of the Palestinian people.' Police said the assailants of Mr. Matar, who was 42, fired at least eight 38mm revolver shots into his head and body when he drove home after midnight. Then they escaped. Mr. Husain visited the murdered man's home after the killing and helped police with their investigations. He died himself less than seven hours later, police said, when a time bomb fixed to his car exploded as he was driving into Rome. A young girl walking nearby was slightly wounded. 'The time bomb could have caused a bloodbath. Fortunately, it exploded when the car turned into an almost empty street,' a police official added.

"Both PLO officials came to Italy in the late 1970s to study medicine, and Mr. Matar's wife told reporters that her husband was to take final medical examinations later that month. 'My husband is not a terrorist' she said as journalists crowded into her Rome suburban home. She added that he earned his living as a translator and journalist for a Kuwait newspaper.

"'He never did any harm to anybody, nor had the intention of doing so,' she said. 'I will fight with all my strength to make this truth known. He thought only of his family and his studies. He wanted to become a doctor to make himself useful to his people massacred by the Israelis, who are conducting genocide in Lebanon," (56)

On July 23, 1982 "Mr. Fadl Dani, deputy head of the Palestine Liberation Organization's office in Paris, was killed by a bomb which exploded in his car as he was about to drive from his home in the 13th arrondisement of the city. According to some witnesses, Mr. Dani, who was 37, had just got into his car shortly after 8 a.m. after saying goodbye to his French wife and their five-month-old son, Said, when three mendrove past and threw the bomb through the car window ...

"Mr. Ibrahim Souss, head of the PLO office in Paris, denounced the attack which, he said, 'adds to the long list of Palestinian martyrs who have fallen in Lebanon and elsewhere at the criminal hands of the Israelis.'

"In a message to Mr. Faruk Kaddumi, head of the PLO foreign affairs department, M. Claude Cheysonne, the French Foreign Minister, condemned the 'cowardly attack' on Mr. Dani, and expressed his condolences, adding that the French government would spare no effort in its search for those responsible." (57)

On May 3, 1984 Mossad agents shot and killed Hanna Moqbell, secretary general of the Arab Journalists Union, in Nicosia, Cyprus. "He was shot in his automobile in Nicosia. Mr. Moqbell's secretary, who was in the car with him, was wounded in the attack." (58)

"Mr. Moqbell, 42 years old, was a member of the Information Committee of the Palestine Liberation Organization." (59)

On June 10, 1986 Mossad agents shot and killed "38 year old Khaled Ahmed Nazal, secretary general of the Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine (DFLP), in Athens, Greece. The PLO diplomatic office in Athens and DFLP headquarters in Damascus claimed he was killed by agents of the Israeli secret service. Mr. Nazal was killed by four shots to the head fired at close range by a youth waiting for him outside his hotel." (60)

On October 21, 1986 "a high ranking Palestinian official was killed by a bomb explosion while driving a rented car in a suburb of Athens, Greece at dawn. The Palestine Liberation Organization blamed the Israeli Secret Service for the death of Munzer Abu Ghazala, aged 44, a senior member of Fateh's national Palestinian council." (61)

On July 22, 1987 Mr. Ali Naji Awad Al-Adhami, "a leading Arab journalist was gunned down outside his office in Chelsea, London, England. The 48 year old cartoonist, a Palestinian, lived in London and worked for Al Qabas, a leading Kuwaiti newspaper read widely in the Middle East.

"Mr. Al Adhami was shot in the head by a gunman who approached him as he left his newspaper office in Ives Street, Chelsea, late in the afternoon. The editor of Al Qabas said, 'I don't know who could be responsible because Mr. Al Adhami has been a critic of many groups." (62) Mr. Al Adhami was a cartoonist whose pen spoofed anyone and everyone, including the Israelis. But ultimately Scotland Yard traced the assassins to the Israeli Embassy in London.

On February 14, 1988 Mossad killed two Palestinians in Limmassol, Cyprus, Abu Al Hassan Kasim and Hamdi Adwan, and wounded Marwan Kanafami. "PLO sources alleged that the Israeli secret service, Mossad, was responsible. Police said the car bomb exploded shortly after noon in the tourist area. The sources said one victim was a humanitarian affairs officer in Lebanon ..." (63)


On April 16, 1988 Israeli terrorists violated the territory of Tunisia to murder Khalil Al Wazir, known as Abu Jihad, the number two man of the Palestine Liberation Organization.

Tunisian Ambassador Ahmed Ghezal, Permanent Representative to the United Nations, addressed a letter on April 19,1988 to the President of the Security Council of the United Nations, in which he stated:

On Saturday, 16 April 1988, at 1.30 a.m., a terrorist commando squad armed with silencer-equipped 9mm Uzi submachine guns entered the residence of Mr. Khalil Al Wazir 'Abu Jihad', situated in Sidi Bou Said, in the northern suburbs of Tunis. After shooting down Mr. Habib Dkhili, a Tunisian citizen employed as a gardener, as well as two guards, the commandos assassinated Mr. Khalil Al Wazir, a member of the PLO Executive Committee, in the presence of his wife and daughter. Having committed their crime, the members of the commando squad left the scene at 1.44 a.m. in two Volkswagen minibuses and a Peugeot 305 automobile which were found some hours later on the beach at Raoued, 15 kilometres from Sidi Bou Said. These vehicles, had been rented earlier from a car-rental agency.

The preliminary results of the investigation have established that at the very time when the operation was being carried out a Boeing 707 aircraft bearing Israeli insignia, which looked like acivil aircraft and was registered under the number 4x977, was flying not far from the Tunisian coast. From this distance, the aircraft, which was in fact a military aircraft carrying ultra-sophisticated electronic equipment, was able to jam the telecommunications network in the area where the attack was being carried out.

At this point in the investigation, it already seemed highly probable that Israel was implicated in this criminal act, and then statements made by Israeli official circles confirmed without any ambiguity the direct responsibility of the Israeli Government, which had indeed financed and ordered the execution of Mr. Khalil Al Wazir.

By acknowledging its responsibility for this odious crime, Israel admits that it has attacked an independent country which is a Member of the United Nations and violated its territorial integrity and sovereignty in total disregard of the rules and norms of international law and of the principles embodied in the Charter, which it agreed to respect when it was admitted to the Organization.

Consequently, Tunisia, an open, hospitable and peaceful country, has once again been the target of the State terrorism consistently practised by Israel with cynicism and arrogance.

The Tunisian Government requests an urgent meeting of the Council to consider the situation created by this new deliberate attack on the territorial integrity and sovereignty of Tunisia.

It invites the Council to condemn Israeli terrorism forcefully and to take appropriate steps to avert and prevent the repetition of such acts.

The Tunisian Government draws the attention of the Council to the recidivistic nature of these deplorable acts, which portend other attacks unless the Council takes practical and serious measures to counter Israeli terrorism. (64)

On April 21, 1988 the United Nations Security Council held its 807th Meeting at which representatives ofTunisiaand members of the Security Council spoke on the murder of Abu Jihad.

Mr. Mahmoud Mestiri, Foreign Minister of Tunisia:
My country's sovereignty and territorial integrity have been violated by terrorist aggression perpetrated on 16 April 1988 at 1.30 a.m. when a group of Israelis equipped with 9-millimetre Uzi submachine guns broke into the residence of Mr. Khalil Al Wazir "Abu Jihad - a member of the Executive Committee of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) - situated in the northern suburbs of the Tunisian capital and shot him to death, after having killed a Tunisian citizen who worked as a gardener and two Palestinian guards. The assassination of Mr. Khalil Al Wazir was perpetrated in the most heinous manner, in the presence of his wife and children.

At 1.44 a.m. the terrorists fled in two Volkswagen minibuses and a Peugeot 305 automobile, which were found some hours later on the beach at Raoued, 15 kilometres from the scene of the crime. It was later learned that these vehicles had been rented from three car rental agencies.

The Tunisian Government established a committee of inquiry in order to investigate the circumstances surrounding this operation. Its preliminary findings have established that at the very time when the assassination was taking place a Boeing-707 aircraft bearing Israeli insignia and the registration number4X977 was flying not far from the Tunisian coast. It was later learned that the aircraft, which had all the appearance of a civil airliner, was actually a military aircraft that was providing logistic support to a group of terrorists; it was equipped with ultra-sophisticated electronic equipment which was able to jam the telecommunications network in the area of the attack.

The ecstatic, indeed gloating, statements spontaneously made by various Israeli authorities immediately after the assassination statements reported in the international media, which up until then had been neutral or more or less in favor of Israel are indications of the Israeli Government's direct involvement in the execution of that odious terrorist plan.

It is truly regrettable and indeed ominous that the attack took place at a time when so many efforts were being made to resolve the problems of the Middle East, as if someone wished to scuttle them. As we all know, however, terrorist operations of this kind cannot halt the march of peoples towards liberation and emancipation. The heroic Palestinian uprising will lead inevitably to the restoration of that people's lawful rights.

Israeli involvement in this operation, which under international law is a violation of the sovereignty and territorial integrity of an independent State Member of the United Nations, clearly shows the terrorist nature of Israeli practices and Israel's defiance of the norms of international law as enshrined in the Charter.

The following evidence convincingly established the premeditated nature of this attack:

First, the advance infiltration of three individuals into Tunisian territory in order to provide logistic support to the terrorist group;

Secondly, the rental of vehicles to transport the terrorists, who carried false identity papers;

Thirdly, the footprints that were left around the vehicles;

Fourthly, the highly suspect presence, at the time of the operation, of an aircraft flying not far from the Tunisian coast, near the scene of the crime;

Fifthly, telecommunications were jammed precisely from the beginning to the end of the operation in order to conceal it;

Sixthly, the vehicles left on the beach and the footprints heading towards the sea show that the commandos entered and left Tunisian territory by sea.

It was reported in the 19 April edition of Le Monde that "the operation, which took the life of Fateh's second in command, was carried out by an Israeli unit of approximately 30 men who arrived by sea, according to a source close to French intelligence. The Israeli commando unit also departed by sea after having killed Abu Jihad in the Sidi Bou Said suburb." It should be noted that Le Monde states those facts unambiguously and without reservation.

Statements by Israeli leaders also establish the Israeli Government's responsibility for this operation. Commenting on 18 April about the assassination of Abu Jihad, Ariel Sharon said that he had been insisting for years on the need to liquidate what he called the "leaders of terrorist organizations."

An Israeli military leader, Mr. Rafael Eitan, said on Israeli armed forces radio that Abu Jihad was one of the four main targets of the Israeli intelligence services and that he had to be cut down.

The international media and experts on terrorism - including Israeli experts - are unanimous in noting that the operation to assassinate Khalil Al Wazir was identical to an earlier operation carried out by Israel against another Palestinian leader. But the Israeli authorities have somewhat sheepishly attempted to deny this; only those who are biased m favour of Israel can believe them. Israel understands the serious view the international community takes of this attack.

This presumptuous act follows previous acts, and Tunisia, an open, hospitable and peaceful country, has once again been the target of the State terrorismconsistently practised by Israel with cynicism and arrogance.

We have heard news from a variety of sources, including international press agencies, well known for their seriousness and impartiality, and very close to Israeli agencies. That news established in the clearest way that this operation was prepared and carried out by Israel. Israel was in fact its architect: its style is easily recognized.

We would further cite reports from Agence France Press, from such periodicals as Le Monde and Time magazine and from the British Broadcasting Corporation. Those are credible sources, well respected internationally: they all say that Israeli sources close to military circles supplied them with their information.

I also call attention to the fact that Mr. Shamir, Head of the Israeli Government, congratulated the terrorists on the success of their operation.

In a statement on 17 April, Mr. Ezer Weizman, Israeli Government Minister and member of the Council of Ministers, criticized the assassination of Abu Jihad in the strongest terms: that constitutes further proof of what took place. Lawyers tell us that a confession is the best proof.

Le Monde reporters in Israel say that they obtained information indicating that the elimination of Abu Jihad was a joint operation by the Israeli intelligence service, Mossad, and the Israeli army, in implementation of a decision by the Israeli Government itself. Other well informed sources have stated that the decision was taken by the Israeli Council of Ministers and endorsed by Peres and Weizman, although those reports have yet to be confirmed.

Do we not have sufficient evidence to incriminate Israel in the carrying out of this terrorist operation? Statements and reactions by Israeli leaders give us enough to go on; they are tantamount to a confession.

In these circumstances, blindness and great favoritism would be needed to acquit Israel; we hope that will not happen, and that Israel will not be given the green light to continue its State terrorism and unjustified acts of aggression.

On the basis of all I have said, the Tunisian Government requested the Security Council to consider the situation created by this new deliberate attack on Tunisia's territorial integrity, security and sovereignty, and invited it to condemn Israeli terrorism forcefully to prevent the repetition of such acts on Tunisian soil.

The Tunisian Government would also like to emphasize the fact that this is not the first time that Tunisia has been the target of terrorist acts perpetrated by Israel, acts which portend other attacks unless the Council takes practical and serious measures to counter Israeli terrorism.

Tunisia, which is mobilizing all its forces to consolidate democracy and the rule of law, as well as fundamental freedoms for individuals and groups, wishes to turn its energies to pursuing its economic well-being. We therefore condemn terrorism in all its forms, regardless of who commits it, not only because we are its victim but also because the opposition of terrorism is one of the pillars of civilized and humanitarian principles. That position is shared by all peaceloving countries and by all countries that have engaged to respect international law, whether written or customary.

In the light of its international responsibilities and moral authority, the Security Council is in duty bound to condemn the political assassination and State terrorism practised by Israel, as well as Israel's violation of the sovereignty and territorial integrity of my country. (65)


Ambassador Pierre-Louis Blanc of France: France condemns all acts of violence, which are obstacles to the easing of tensions, to dialogue and to the establishment of peace in the Middle East. All of us here are committed to the quest for a just and lasting peace that can ensure the security of all States of the region and justice for all peoples. Individually or collectively, we have all undertaken a determined effort to reach such a settlement. France, for its part, has continuously advocated dialogue and it tirelessly repeats that peace and security require mutual recognition, which will pave the way towards negotiations.

The assassination of one of the main Palestinian leaders constitutes a flagrant and brutal blow to the goal shared by the international community as a whole, namely, the establishment of peace based on the principles of law and justice and through the concerted actions of all the parties concerned. We cannot but condemn such an act. At the same time that act constitutes a new and intolerable attack against Tunisian sovereignty. In these trying times we wish to express our entire sympathy and solidarity to that friendly State, with which France maintains especially close relations.

Tunisia symbolizes a tradition of hospitality deeply rooted in the heart of the Arab nation. Given the wisdom of its policy and the soundness of its decisions, that country, under the distinguished leadership of President Ben Ali. is an ideal place for meetings, for exchanges of views and for dialogue. How can we fail to feel outrage at any act that is aimed at negating the values embodied by Tunisia and at undermining the friendship and respect it enjoys in the international community?

The Council must express in the strongest possible terms the international community's condemnation of that attack. The Council must reaffirm its respect for the dignity with which the Tunisian Government is shouldering its responsibilities at this difficult time. The United Nations must assure Tunisia of its sympathy and active solidarity. (66)

Sir Crispin Tickell, Ambassador for the United Kingdom: The murder of Khalil Al Wazir, a leading member of the Palestine Liberation Organization, in Tunis on 16 April was a senseless act of terrorism. We do not know with certainty who was responsible, nor whether a Government directed the murderers.

We condemn terrorism in all its forms. But support or sponsorship of murder by Governments is doubly repugnant: it is a betrayal of the natural expectation of the international community that Governments will uphold the rule of law. The General Assembly in resolutions 40/61 of 1985 and 42/159 of 1987 unequivocally condemned as criminal all acts, methods and practices of terrorism whatever and by whomever committed, including those which jeopardize friendly relations among States and their security. Murder of a political adversary indicates a refusal to listen to his arguments and to meet them in kind. It means a rejection of the processes by which the problems of Palestine must eventually be resolved if a still greater tragedy is to be averted. The Council, in its knowledge of the background to this incident, is all too familiar with the consequences of policies which support or condone terrorism.

In October 1985 the Palestine Liberation Organization in Tunisia was the target of an attack which constituted a grave affront to Tunisian sovereignty. Then, as now, the Government and the people of Tunisia deserve the sympathy of the international community for an outrage committed on Tunisian soil. Tunisia has an honorable history of participation in United Nations peace-keeping and of contributions to the work of the Council. Tunisia has been generous in its hospitality tovictims of other conflicts. It deserves better than repeated assaults upon its security.

My delegation wishes to express its sympathy to the family of Khalil Al Wazir, particularly his wife and daughter, who suffered the horror of witnessing the murder. We also express our sympathy to the Palestinian people for their loss. Our condolences go equally to the families of the three others who were murdered in the attack. (67)

On the following day, April 22, 1988, the United Nations Security Council continued its discussion of the murder of Abu Jihad in its 2808th Meeting. Following are some of the verbatim remarks by representatives of various nations:

Maurizion Bucci, Ambassador for Italy:
The Security Council is meeting at the request of Tunisia, which has complained about a serious violation of its sovereign rights caused by an incursion which led to the death of four persons, one of whom, Khalil Al Wazir, held a prominent position in the hierarchy of the Palestine Liberation Organization. I wish at the outset to extend my delegation's sympathy and condolences to the families of all the victims.

The world media have reconstructed the event in detail and unanimously pointed out the existence of Israel's involvement in the killing of Khalil Al Wazir, Israel has neither denied nor confirmed officially its involvement in the operation, although some Government officials expressed praise for and solidarity with those who executed the slaughter. These elements lend credibility to the current version of the events.

On principle and, I should like to say, by virtue of its culture, my country is averse to attributing responsibility when the facts are not ascertained unequivocally.

Our serious concern over what has happened is motivated by the fact that we are facing an occurrence which, were its origin to be confirmed, would be extremely grave. In fact, this horrific slaughter appears to be the deed not of a terrorist group but of a State. Furthermore, it has also infringed on the rights of a friendly nation, one known for its moderation, to which we wish to express in this Chamber our sympathy and solidarity.

The Tunis slaughter is unfortunately part and parcel of that cycle of violence which is characterized, as we see again today, by recourse to terrorism, the same terrorism which has punctuated the tragic story of the Middle East crisis.

The elimination of a prestigious and important leader resolves nothing. Indeed, experience teaches us that violence only serves to pave the way to further violence. It incites passion and leads to new uprisings, new repressions, additional victims.

We are also concerned by the political aspect of the situation. In fact, this episode is disruptive of the efforts being made by Secretary of State Shultz, who is striving to keep alive the hope of concrete peace prospects, notwithstanding the reservations that have been expressed on some aspects, even essential ones, of the American peace plan. Nor does it facilitate the visit of the Soviet Foreign Minister to the area from which a positive contribution to the prospect of apeaceful solution of the Middle East crisis could be expected. In short, the death of four persons and the violation of the rights of a peaceful country can only weaken further the already fragile peace process - to the point that one may wonder whether this is indeed the goal of the perpetrators of this crime.

The facts that have been brought to the attention of the Security Council confirm that a negotiated solution to the Middle East crisis, at the heart of which is the Palestinian problem, cannot be delayed.

The basis of the solution can only be resolution 242 (1967). which requires from one side the recognition of Israel and from the other the willingness to withdraw from the occupied territories. In short, both parties should accept a compromise based on the formula "territory for peace". There is no alternative to that outcome, and this should be borne in mind while we debate an extremely serious episode which goes against that outcome. As we affirmed very recently in this Chamber, ways and means have to be agreed upon through an international conference to be held under the auspices of the United Nations. All interested parties should be represented at the conference, including the PLO, which is so widely representative of the Palestinian people, a people that has recently undergone such dramatic trials and to which our solidarity goes.

But it is necessary to hasten our pace, since the increase in violence which we are witnessing weakens the prospects for peace. (68)

Ambassador Din Yuanhong of China: It was with shock, anger and grief that the Chinese Government and people learned of the tragic death by assassination of Abu Jihad, member of the Executive Committee of Al Fateh of Palestine and Deputy Commander-in-Chief of the Palestinian armed forces. Here the Chinese delegation wishes to request the Permanent Observer of the Palestine Liberation Organization to the United Nations to convey its profound condolences and sympathy to the PLO, the Palestinian people, the bereaved family and the families of other victims.

Abu Jihad was an outstanding, experienced leader of the Palestinian people. He made great contributions to the Palestinian national cause and won the love and esteem of his people and his fighters. His most unfortunate death is an immense loss to the Palestinian people and their cause. We are convinced, however, that the heroic Palestinian people will turn sorrow into strength and, under the leadership of the PLO, carry their struggle through to the end with even greater determination so as to achieve the lofty goals of the Palestinian national cause. The Chinese Government and people have all along treasured the friendship between the Chinese and the Palestinian peoples, and will as always resolutely support the Palestinian people in its just struggle to regain its national rights.

The investigation by the Tunisian Government and the important statement made in this Council by the Minister for Foreign Affairs of Tunisia have indicated that the Israeli authorities were responsible for the murder of Abu Jihad. We strongly condemn the Israeli authorities for their despicable act of assassination and gross violation of Tunisia's sovereignty and territorial integrity.

It must be pointed out emphatically that the assassination of Abu Jihad was an elaborately planned terrorist act and a political conspiracy aimed at undermining the PLO and the Palestiniannational cause, particularly the anti-Israel struggle of the Palestinian people in the occupied territories. Although the conspiracy to kill Abu Jihad succeeded, the plotters will never have their way in defeating the cause of the Palestinian people. We can say so with absolute certainty. The death of Abu Jihad cannot but further arouse the wrath of the militant Palestinian people. Those who are bent on putting down the just struggle of the Palestinian people with terrorism will find that their design backfires, and will eat their own bitter fruit in the end.

It must also be pointed out emphatically that this is not the first time Israel has grossly violated Tunisia's sovereignty. The repeated encroachments and provocations by the Israeli authorities against so peace-loving a country as Tunisia have demonstrated that those authorities have no respect whatsoever for the purposes and principles of the United Nations Charter or for the norms governing international relations. Their behavior has posed a threat to international peace and security. We support the Tunisian Government and people in theirjust struggle to safeguard their sovereignty and territorial integrity. We hold that the Security Council should take the necessary steps to prevent the Israeli authorities from conducting similar illegal actions in the future. (69)

Ambassador Alexander Belonogov of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics: First of all, 1 should like on behalf of the Soviet delegation to express our profound respect for the Minister for Foreign Affairs of Tunisia. Mr. Mahmoud Mestiri. The Soviet delegation listened attentively to Mr. Mestiri's statement and to the statement of the representative of the Palestine Liberation Organization to the United Nations.

Like the overwhelming majority of other delegations in this Chamber, we learned with profound indignation of the actions taken by Israel on the territory of a sovereign Arab country, Tunisia. As a result of the bandit-like raid recently perpetrated in Tunisia, a prominent Palestinian figure, Mr. Khalil Al Wazir, "Abu Jihad," was cut down in the presence of his wife and daughter. He had devoted his entire life to the struggle for the just cause of the Palestinian people, which is defending its freedom and independence.

The Soviet delegation wishes to voice its deep condolences to the Executive Committee of the PLO, to the Palestinian people and to the bereaved families on the death of Abu Jihad and his associates.

This act was carefully planned and carried out in cold blood by Tel Aviv. It was intended to violate the sovereignty and territorial integrity of a peace-loving independent State Member of the United Nations. Indeed, even Israel where an extensive campaign glorifying the so-called heroes of this operation has been set in motion has not denied that the murder of Abu Jihad was carried out by Israeli special services. Moreover, we have learned from the information media that it was endorsed by the so-called inner cabinet of Israel.

Thus, this is yet another example of the policy of State terrorism that has long been pursued by the Government of Israel. It is yet another manifestation of its cynical contempt for world public opinion, which was severely jolted by the crimes of the Israeli occupation forces and which has resolutely called for an end to the violence in the region.

Suffice it to refer to Israel's repeated incursions into Lebanon, its attack on the Iraqi nuclear reactor. its raid on the Entebbe airport in Uganda and its deliberate destruction of a Libyan civilian aircraft.

Tunisia has now for the second time become the target of Israel's criminal acts. Many speakers here have recalled that on 1 October 1985 the Israeli air force bombed the southern suburbs of Tunis. At that time the Security Council adopted resolution 573 (1985), in which, in particular, it demanded that Israel refrain from perpetrating such acts of aggression against the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Tunisia or from threatening to do so. Now Israel has violated that resolution, in open defiance of the Security Council.

The practice of State terrorism has repeatedly been condemned by the United Nations General Assembly. In that connection, in 1985 the Assembly adopted a resolution in which it "Resolutely (condemned) policies and practices of terrorism in relations between States as a method of dealing with other States andpeoples". (General Assembly resolution 39/159, para. 1). At its forty-second session the General Assembly adopted a resolution on measures to prevent international terrorism, in which, in particular, it "(Called) upon all States to fulfil their obligation under intemational law to refrain from organizing, instigating, assisting or participating in terrorist acts in other States, or acquiescing in activities within their territory directed towards the commission of such acts." (General Assembly resolution 42,459, para. 4). Israel has paid no heed to such appeals by the world community and has once again deliberate defied the wishes of the United Nations. The terrorist act perpetrated by Israel cannot be viewed as an isolated phenomenon unrelated to its overall policies. It is blatantly obvious that there is adirect connection between the Israeli action in Tunisia and the Israeli actions in the occupied Arab territories. The latest reports from the occupied territories attest to an increase of acts of terror, to mass beatings of Palestinians by Israeli soldiers and to a new wave of arrests, pogroms and deportations. The Israeli authorities have sent growing numbers of army and police reinforcements, tanks and armoured personnel carriers against the population and have continued to raze Palestinian settlements and villages. They have continued to carry out massacres in refugee camps. The number of victims of such acts of violence against the Palestinian population has been increasing.

It is difficult to exaggerate the crimes Israel has been committing in the occupied territories. They have frequently been referred to here, Israel's mass violations of human rights have been condemned in many United Nations documents, and no vociferous assertions of peaceful intentions by Tel Aviv can justify its blatant contraventions of the norms of international law and the provisions of the United Nations Charter.

All those barbarous crimes- murder, tonure, repression, beatings, deportations - are futile and powerless against the struggle of the Palestinian people to achieve its legitimate national rights. As the General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Mikhail Sergevich Gorbachev, stated at a recent meeting with Yasser Arafat, the Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Palestine Liberation Organization:

"The Palestinians are a people whose fate is difficult, but they are not alone in their defence of their just cause. They enjoy broad international support, and that support includes a pledge that the central issue for the Palestinian people - self-determination - will be resolved. The ascendancy of the popular Palestinian movement has now become an important impetus to the quest for practical solutions leading to a comprehensive settlement. The strength of that mass uprising resides in its profoundly democratic nature. It has not veered towards extremism, in spite of the provocative and cruel acts of repression inflicted by the occupiers. Thus the movement has won ever-greater international support and sympathy in a broad range of circles."

Yet the murder of Abu Jihad and the events in the occupied territories have once again compelled us to ask: Why is it that the Arab-Israeli conflict has not yet been solved? Why has the fundamental problem, the Palestinian issue, not yet been solved? The reason lies in Israel's refusal to agree to the convening of a plenipotentiary international conference on the Middle East and its rejection of any cooperation or even contact with the Palestine Liberation Organization, which has been and remains the spokesman of the yearnings of the Palestinian people and its sole, legitimate representative.

The Israeli leadership's reliance on force, aggression and the suppression of the liberation struggle of the Palestinian people cannot solve the Arab-Israeli conflict. The true path towards a settlement lies in eliminating the potentially explosive situation in the Middle East through political means and collective efforts. Promising initiatives now being taken in international affairs are creating conditions favorable to that end. There has been aclear expressionof the international community's desire to bring about radical change in the Middle East through the convening of an international peace conference. The specific proposals made to that end are well known. Their implementation would furnish a palpable impetus towards peace and put an end to the adverse, potentially explosive trends in the region.

The Soviet delegation resolutely condemns the murder of Abu Jihad and supports Tunisia's justified appeal to the Security Council. The Council must resolutely condemn this action on the part of Israel, which has once again blatantly violated the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Tunisia by the perpetration of a deliberate act of political murder.

The Security Council cannot and indeed has no right to overlook those instances in which Israel has carried out an increasing number of violations of other States sovereignty, and pursued a policy of State terrorism and piratical raids, trampling underfoot peoples' legitimate rights. It is also the Council's duty to take effective measures so as to secure a just solution of the Middle East problem.

Once again we call upon all States to do their pan to help break the deadlock in the state of conflict in the Middle East. We wish to place on record our readiness to cooperate with everyone desiring to implement a Middle East settlement on a just and durable basis, taking into account the interests and rights of all States and peoples of that region - including, naturally, the Arab people of Palestine. (70)

Ambassador Dragoslave Pejic of Yugoslavia: First of all, I should like to express our warm welcome and appreciation to His Excellency Mr. Mahmoud Mestiri, the Minister for Foreign Affairs of Tunisia, who enjoys great respect and esteem in this Organization and has come before the Council to set forth his country's case with regard to an act of armed aggression against its territorial integrity and sovereignty. He has set before us clear evidence of renewed State terrorism committed by Israel against peaceful and nonaligned Tunisia, the objective of which was to assassinate one of the most prominent leaders of the Palestine Liberation Organization, Mr. Khalil Al Wazir.

In his statement of 20 April, the Secretary-General of this Organization, Mr. Perez de Cuellar, too, left no doubt as to who was behind the armed action against Tunisia. He recalled that, by its resolution 573 (19851, the Security Council has already vigorously condemned an earlier attack of armed aggression by Israel against Tunisia. (71)

On April 25, 1988, at its 2810th Meeting, the Security Council adopted Resolution 611 (1988) condemning Israel on this flagrant violation of the Charter of the United Nations, international law and norms of conduct. The following is the text of the said resolution:

The Security Council,

Having considered the letter dated 19 April 1988 (S/19798), in which Tunisia made a complaint against Israel following the new act of aggression committed by the latter against the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Tunisia, Having heard the statement by the Minister for Foreign Affairs of Tunisia,

Having noted with concern that the aggression perpetrated on 16 April 1988 in the locality of Sidi Bou Said has caused loss of human life, particularly the assassination of Mr. Khalil El Wazir,

Recalling that in accordance with Article 2, paragraph 4, of the Charter of the United Nations, all Member States shall refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any State, or acting in any other manner inconsistent with the purposes of the United Nations,

Considering that in its resolution 573 (1985), adopted following the act of aggressioncommitted on 1 October 1985 by Israel against the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Tunisia, it has condemned Israel and has demanded that Israel refrain from perpetrating such acts of aggression or from threatening to do so,

Gravely concerned by the act of aggression which constitutes a serious and renewed threat to peace, security and stability in the Mediterranean region,

1. Condemns vigorously the aggression perpetrated on 16 April 1988 against the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Tunisia in flagrant violation of the Charter of the United Nations, international law and norms of conduct;

2. Urges Member States to take measures to prevent such acts against the sovereignty and territorial integrity of all States;

3. Expresses its determination to take the appropriate steps to ensure the implementation of the present resolution;

4. Requests the Secretary-General to report urgently to the Security Council any new elements available to him and relating to this aggression;

5. Decides to remain seized of the matter. (72)

The opinions expressed by the diverse range of governments in the Security Council reflect the outrage of the international community at the criminal behavior of the Israeli government and its murder organization, the Mossad.

The aforementioned premeditated murders of Palestinians, other Arabs and Europeans prove beyond any doubt that members of the Israeli Government who gave the orders to Mossad to commit these crimes, as well as members of the Mossad organization are guilty of terrorist crimes and murders. The United States Administration and Congress have been subsidizing the Israeli Government by billions of dollars and subsidizing Mossad by more than thirty million dollars a year. Therefore the United States Administration and Congress are accessories after the fact to all of the crimes ordered by the Israeli government and carried out by its murderous organization, the Mossad.


The Mossad, Military Intelligence and Shin Beth have cooperated in the plans to kidnap and take thousands of Palestinians hostage since 1967. More than 300,000 Palestinians were kidnapped from their homes and incarcerated in Israeli jails or concentration camps without trials. In 1989 there are more than 10,000 Palestinian men, women and children incarcerated in Israeli prisons or concentration camps. Between 1978 and 1982 Israeli forces kidnapped and held hostage more than 3,000 Lebanese and Palestinians from Lebanon. They were exchanged for Israeli prisoners-ofwar in 1979 and 1983.

In July 1989 there are more than 300 Lebanese Shi'ites who were taken as hostages and imprisoned in Israel. The latest kidnapping by Mossad and Military Intelligence took place on July 28, 1989, when Israeli forces kidnapped Sheikh Abdul Karim Obeid in the village of Jibchit, "about 20 miles north of the border and north of Israel's self-designated security zone in Southern Lebanon ... Israeli commandos landed in a valley just outside of the village after 1 a.m., and then they crept to the Sheik's apartment ... Israeli fighter planes flew overhead in a mock air raid to mask the noise of the helicopters ... An Arabic-speaking Israeli commando knocked on Sheik Obeid's door, and someone from the family opened it. Pointing pistols, the Israelis quickly seized Sheik Obeid and two others identified as Ahmed Obeid, his cousin, and Ashem Fahs, a friend.

"The Lebanese radio reported that Saged, one of Obeid's five children, said, 'They stormed our house and pointed a gun at me and my mother and tied us up. Then they blindfolded my father and the two others and took them away.'

"The Sheik's wife was tied up, and her mouth was taped shut. She and the children were locked in separate rooms...

"On the way out, though, a neighbor opened his door to see what was going on, and the Israelis shot him...." (73)

Thus the Israelis murdered in cold blood a bystander who was not a supporter of the Sheikh but of a rival faction. Such a wanton killing of a bystmder is a pervasive part of the pattern of Israeli intelligence operations.

President George Bush promptly criticized the kidnapping, saying: ''I don't think kidnapping and violence helps the cause of peace." (74)

Senator Robert Dole, leader of the Republicms in the Senate, stated:

"Perhaps a little more responsibility on the part of the Israelis would be refreshing." (75)

When confronted with Dole's remarks, White House spokesmn Marlin Fitzwater stated: '$1 think it's fair to say that many people do share the Senator's concerns." (76)

The Christian Science Monitor commented on the kidnapping of Sheikh Obeid in its editorial of August 3, 1989:

But what purpose did this latest action by Israel serve, aside from eye-for-an-eye retaliation? The wrong-headedness of that move was only compounded by the offer to negotiate with hostage-takers.

It makes no difference whether the marine officer in fact was still alive this week. The question remains: What good did it do to grab Sheik Obeid, the Shi'ite cleric, even if he was tied to the Higgins kidnapping? What was gained?

A cynic would say it was to draw the United States back closer to Israel at a time when Washington is tentatively fashioning a more even-handed Mideast policy that includes talking to Pdestinian leaders and telling Israel strdight out to "give up the dream of a greater Israel." The reaction has only been a violent attempt by radical Arabs and Iranians to drive a wedge between the U.S. and Israel. Was that an anticipated diversion (anticipated by Israel, that is) from U.S. diplomatic efforts? (77)

U.S. Marine Corps Colonel William Higgins, who was held as a hostage by Lebanese Shi'iies, was reportedly murdered as a consequence of the Israeli kidnapping of Sheikh Obeid. Uri Dan, a Mossad agent, reported in the New York Post on August 3, 1989:

Israeli officials realized Lt. Col. WIlliam Higgins and other western hostages might be endangered when they ordered the abduction of a top Shi'ite leader, Defense Minister Yitzhak Rabin revealed last night.

But he insisted Israel had no viable alternative to break stalemated secret negotiations to free its own soldiers held captive in Lebanon.

Pro-Iranian Shi'ite terrorists claimed Monday they killed the American Marine in retaliation for the kidnapping of Sheik Abdul Karim Obeid.

Rabin's remarks were the first here indicating that Israel weighed the possible effect the Sheik's abduction might have on Higgins. "Before kidnapping the Sheik, wc took into consideration the wildest possible reactions of the He~bc)llah, including what allegedly happened to Lt. CoI. Higgins andeven worset" Rabin told the Knesset.'' (78)


Although the primary victims of criminal Mossad operations were Palestinims and other Arabs, Mossad would not shrink from conducting operations against Jews who failed to support the Israeli war machine. Mordechai Vanunu, who worked at the secret Israeli nuclear weapons facility at Dimona, became horrified by what he saw there and fled to England. The operation conducted by Mossad is summarized as follows:

A 1986 cloak-and-dagger operation was directed against Mordechai Vanunu, an Israeli nuclear technician who gave the Sunday Times of London an inside lookat Israel's narlear weapons capabiltties.

Based on data sold by Vanunu, British scientists estimated Israel has 100 to 200 nuclear weapons.

A woman working for the Israeli intelligence agency Mossad lured Vanunu from London to Rome with promises of sex and romance. He was then drugged. handcuffed and smuggled back to Israel, where he was put on trial and found guilty of treason. (79)


1. Tom Segev, 1949 The First Israelis (New York: Free hcss, 19861, p. 105.

2. Dennis Eisenberg, Uri Dan and Eli Landau, The Mossad: Israel's Secret Intelligence Service (New York: New American Library, 1979), p. 17.

3. Ibid.

4. Ibid., pp. 17-1 8.

5. Ibid., p. 24.

6. Joshua Fddmor, The Silent Warriors (New York: Macmillan Co., 19691, p. 188.

7. Rabbi Moshe Schonfeld, Genocide in the Holy Land (Brooklyn, N.Y.: Neturei Katia of theU.S.A., 1980), p. 514.

8. Eisenkrg, et al., The Mossad: Israel's Secret lnteiligence Service. p. 8.

9. Stewart Steven, The Spymasters of Israel (New York: Macmil- Ian Co., 1980), p. 20.

10. Ibid.

11. Eisenberg, et al., p. 11.

12. Ibid., p. 12.

13.Ibid., p. 14.

14. lbid.

15. Eisenberg, et d., p. 167.

16. Steven, The Spymasters of Israel, p. 145.

17. Ibid., p. 145.

18. Ibid.

19. Ibid.

20. Ibid., pp. 145- 146.

21. Ibid.,p. 147

22. Ibid.

23. Benny Morris, The Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem 1947-1949 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1987), p. 324.

24. Steven, p. 92.

25. Ibid., p. 263.

26. Ibid., p. 265.

27. Ibid.

28. Ibid., pp. 268-269.

29. Janet Venn-Brown, Ed., For a Palestinian (London: Kegan Paul International, 1984), p. 73.

30. Wd., p. 205.

31. lbid., p. 210.

32. Ibid., pp. 209-210.

33. Steven, pp. 269-270.

34. J. Bowyer Bell, Terror Out of Zion (New York: St. Martins Press, 1977), p. 348.

35. Uri Dan, "Israeli Spymaster the Real Power Behind Noriega," The New York Post, July 11, 1988, pp. 2, 14; and Rowland Evans and Robert Novak, "Israeli Spy Expert Helped Noriega Keep U.S. in Dark," The New York Post, October 28, 1989.

36. Steven, p. 270.

37. Ibid., p. 271.

38. lbid., pp. 271-274.

39. Jacques Deriqy and Hesi Carmel, The Untold Story of Israel (New York: Grove Press, 1979), p. 234.

40. Steven, p. 275.

41. Wd.,p. 281.

42. Ibid., pp. 284-289.

43. David Atlee Phillips, Night Watch (New York: Athenum, 1977).

44. The Times, London, January 5, 1977, p. 4.

45. The Times, London, January 5, 1978, pp. I & 4.

46. Ibid., August 4, 1978, p. 1.

47. Ibid.. January 23, 1979, p. 1.

48. Ibid., January 24, 1979, p. 1.

49. The Daily Telegraph, London, July 26, 1979, p. 1.

50. Ibid., July 27, 1979, p. I.

51. The Times, London, December 17, 1979, p. 6.

52. Ibid.,June2, 1981, p. I.

53. Ibid., August 6, 198 1, p. 1.

54. lhid., October 10, 1981, p. 4.

55. lbid., March 2, 1982, p. 6.

56. Ibid., June 18, 1982, p. 8.

57. Ibid., July 24, 1982.p. 1.

58. New York Times, May 4, 1984, p. 3.

59. Le Monde, Paris, May 4, 1984, p. 4.

60. The Times, London, June 12, 1986, p. 8.

61. Ibid., October 22, 1986, p. 10.

62. Ibid., July 23, 1987, p. 1.

63. Ibid., February 15, 1988, p. 6.

64. United Nations Document S/19798, 19 April, 1988.

65. Provisional Records of the Security Council, S/PV2807, 21 April, 1988, pp. 6-16.

66. Ibid., pp. 46-47.

67. Ibid., pp. 47-50.

68. Provisional Records of the Security Council, S/PV2808, April 22, 1988, pp. 3-6.

69. lbid., pp. 6-8.

70. Ibid., pp. 8-16.

71. Ibid., p. 16.

72. United Nations Document S/RES/611 (1988), 25 April, 1988

73. New York Times, July 29, 1989, p. 5.

74. Ibid.

75. New York Post, August 1, 1989, p. 4.

76. Ibid., pp. 4, 15.

77. Christian Science Monitor, August 3, 1989, p. 20.

78. New York Post, August 3, 1989, p. 2.

79. New York Post, July 29, 1989, p. 5.


Encyclopedia of the Palestine Problem
By Issa Nakhleh

Return to Table of Contents