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Encyclopedia of the Palestine Problem

CHAPTER TWO - part 3 of 3 | go to part 1 | go to part 2

FISHING INDUSTRY

Palestinian Arabs were responsible for catching 3,041 tons of fish in 1944, 7 1% of the total for Palestine. Waters off Palestine contained a large variety of fish, and there were also fresh water fish. Following is a Table of the types of fish caught by Palestinians in 1944- 1945.(48)

Name of Fish

1944/45

Local Name

English Name

Quantity kgs.

Value LP

 

 

 

 

Ajaj

Golden Bream

-

-

Asfoor

Sea Bream

84

34

Atut

Blue Fish

60

2 1

Arras

-

6,883

1,046

Balbut

Cat Fish

11, 147

1, 195

Balfida

Half Beak

-

-

Balamida

Bonito

16,210

3,299

Buri

Grey Mullet

112,638

45,899

Bursh

Skate

127,765

19,340

Carp

Carp

850,800

369,369

Dawaqir

Sea Perch

21,837

8,865

Famden

Sea Bream

46,885

22,314

Ghubbus

Sea Bream, Bogue

40,395

5,473

Ghumbar

Skip Jack

66,967

32,215

Haffafi

 -

12,293

2,278

Intiyas

Yellow Tail

2,928

1,211

Isfima

Large Barracuda

2,750

1,094

Jarbiden

Red Bream

132,672

40,437

Kalb el Bahr

Dog Fish

70,391

13,981

Kersin

Barble

58,853

16,080

Luqquz

Sea Perch

1 16,207

55,042

Malita

Small Barracuda

40,522

11,553

Mannurin

Sea Bream

1,902

741

Marmur

Sea Bream

44,506

10,359

Musqar

Maiqre

186,817

82,406

Musht Addadi

St. Peter's Fish

597

121

Musht Abyad

St. Peter's Fish

34,052

11,915

Musht Kalb

Cichlid

540

153

Musht Lubbad

St. Peter's Fish

50

18

Musht Marmur

St. Peter's Fish

273

54

Musht 'Uqqar

St. Peter's Fish

54,562

15,089

Oishra

Barble

8,594

2,359

'Uqqar

 -

2,349

602

Samak Musa

Sole

37, 195

23,533

Sarghus

Sea Bream

38,715

14,880

Sardina

Sardine Pilchard

1, 160,712

212,422

Sardina (fresh water)

Bleak

275, 102

17,939

Saqqaya

Hake

106,378

43, 186

Skumbli

Mackerel

7,925

1,832

Sulbi

Sea Bream

1,364

439

Sultan Ibrahim

Red Mullet

437,223

112,271

Tarakhun

Horse Mackerel

8,452

2,08 1

Turghullus

 

29,695

8,397

Fish, mixed

-

107,426

14,737

 

 

 

 

TOTAL

 

4,282,716

1,226,280

All fishing boats, nets and other equipment belonging to Palestinian Arabs were usurped by the Zionists in 1948, destroying the Palestinian fishing industry.

DAIRY ENDUSTRY

Arab milk production in Palestine was estimated at 75,000,000 litres for 1945, 51% of the total for Palestine. Milk production had been increasing at an annual rate of 10% per annum.

POULTRY PRODUCTS

Palestinian Arabs produced 62% of all eggs in Palestine in 1945, or approximately 74,400,000 eggs. The poultry industry was constantly improving in Palestine and had undergone rapid expansion.

MEAT PRODUCTS

Palestinian Arabs produced 62% of all eggs in Palestine in 1945, or approximately 74,400,000 eggs. The poultry industry was constantly improving in Palestine and had undergone rapid expansion.

Year

Cattle (inc.buffaloes)

Sheep

Goats

Camels

Pigs

Total

1933

51,837

157,206

89,278

962

904

300, 187

1934

56, 166

197,756

101,827

921

689

357,359

1935

51,507

212,674

94,596

882

678

360,337

1936

44,306

136,.218

48, 159

322

878

229,883

1937

53,590

219,929

100,338

461

862

375, 180

1938

55,044

184,425

67,251

424

612

307,756

1939

65,497

196,410

89,780

1,262

757

353,706

1940

76,553

241,356

125,402

1,717

1,042

446,070

1941

102,436

256,659

110,687

3,731

2, 117

475,630

1942

65,036

141,505

54,664

11, 167

3,518

257,890

1943

27,468

96, 167

46,684

11,925

3,500

185,744

1944

45,437

164,935

35,980

6,740

15,628

268,720

It is estimated that Arab cattle slaughtered was 89% of the total, or 40,438 animals in 1944.
It is estimated that Arab sheep slaughtered was 94% of the total, or 35,260 animals in 1944.
It is estimated that Arabs goats slaughtered was 98% of the total, or 35,260 animals in 1944.
It is estimated that Arab camels slaughtered was 100% of the total, or 6,740 animals in 1944.
It is estimated that Arab pigs slaughtered was 100% of the total, or 15,628 pigs in 1944.

TOURIST INDUSTRY

Being the Holy Land for the majority of the people of the world, Palestine was a land of religious pilgrimage, and thus had a well-developed tourist industry.

The growth of tourism was naturally adversely affected by World War II and the partition of Palestine in 1948. The Zionists have disrupted that industry, which would have grown proportionally with the increase in air travel.

As it was, before partition, hotel and restaurant trades in Palestine were growing at a rate of 25% per annum.(50)

The climate of Palestine was also conducive to the development of leisure oriented industries, a growth stifled by Israel which primarily uses tourism to cheat foreign Jews into contributing to meet Israeli deficits and to influence foreign politicians into giving aid to the Zionist government.

Zionist propaganda is built on a total tissue of lies and is so pervasive that even experienced observers are sometimes astounded at the real facts, For example, the Zionists claim Palestine as a land of "Religious Pilgrimage" for Jews as well as for Christians and Muslims.

The actual statistics of visitors to Palestine, citing their purposes as a "Religious Pilgrimage,'' in the first six months of 1947 (the last period for which the data is available) is as follows: Christians 4,225; Muslims 161 ; Jews 1.

For the full year of 1946 the figures of those visiting Palestine for the purpose of "Religious Pilgrimage" were as follows: Christians 5,514; Muslims 210; Jews 0.

THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

The construction industry in Palestine was more Arab than Jewish. Between 1931 and 1939 there was a 73% increase in the number of Arabs employed in the building trades, from 10,000 to 17,000. During that same period the Palestinian Arab total population increased by 23%. This differential shows the dramatic growth in Palestinian Arab construction. In the post-World War II era, there was a building boom in Palestine.

This is graphically illustrated by the doubling of consumption of cement in Palestine from 140,235 tons in 1945 to 278,2 16 tons in 1946.

Although there was a building boom throughout both the Jewish and Arab sectors, the greatest increase in building was undertaken by Palestinian Arabs. In Jaffa, for example, 34,364 square meters of building took place in 1945, and 133,407 square meters of building took place in 1946, an increase of 377%.(51)

In 1945 the Government of Palestine compiled statistics of the private buildings authorized by the municipalities and which were constructed between 1936 and 1944. The result was that the total number of buildings constructed by the Arabs in that period was 21,267 and the number of buildings constructed by Jews was 7,693. The following is a list of the number of buildings constructed in various localities(52):

TOTAL PRIVATE BUILDINGS IN DIFFERENT LOCALITIES FROM 1936-1944

Locality

No. Of Buildings

Arab

Jewish

Jerusalem

5,209

3, 125

2,084

Ja ffa

1,213

1,213

-

Tel Aviv

5,061

-

5,061

Haifa

6,239

3,120

3,119

Ramallah

564

564

-

Rishon Le Zion

352

-

352

Rehovot

464

-

464

Petah Tiqva

602

-

602

Radeh

344

344

-

Ramat Gan

663

-

663

Lydda

357

357

-

Bethlehem

645

645

-

Beit Jda

480

480

-

Beersheeba

563

563

-

Hebmn

625

625

-

Gaza

1,414

1,414

-

Majdal

1,816

1,816

-

Khan Yunis

484

484

-

Nazareth

667

667

-

Tiberias

457

274

183

Safad

451

225

226

Nablus

2,704

2,704

-

Acre

641

641

-

Tulkann

686

686

-

Jenin

734

734

-

Beisan

360

360

-

TOTALS

 

21,267

7,693

"QUARRYING and stone-cutting were carried on mostly in the Jerusalem district, chiefly around Bethlehem. The building trade in the country drew largely from this locality for materials and skilled masons."(53)

All of the construction equipment and materials owned by Palestinian Arabs as well as construction in progress and newly completed buildings were usurped in 1948 in 80% of the territory of Palestine.

COMPARISON BETWEEN ARAB AND JEWISH ECONOMIES IN PALESTINE

Economically, the Palestinian Arabs had been developing at an extraordinary rate made possible by the high profitability accompanying their productivity. The Jewish settlements in Palestine were unable to compete in profitability with the Palestinian Arabs. The Jewish social and economic stmcture was dependent upon outside subsidies both for capital expenditures and for operating expenses.

Contrary to the myths created by the Zionists, the Jewish settlements in Palestine were never self-supporting. The only profitable sector was comprised of those private Jewish citrus growers who engaged Arab labor, and British Colonial Office records show that these farmers were often the victims of murder, arson and extortion perpetrated by Zionist terrorists because of their employment of Arab labor.

The Jewish National Fund (Keren Hayesod Ltd.) is illustrative of the unprofitability of the Jewish settlements in Palestine. At least 63% of the donations received by the Keren Hayesod Ltd. between its founding in 1921 and 1945 was utilized to subsidize annual operating expenses. "The bulk of these donations derived from the United States of America, which provided 60-65% of the total."(54)

In contrast, the Palestinian Arab economy received no outside assistance, yet had extraordinary real growth based upon high profitability and reinvestment.

This is amply illustrated by the Palestinian Arab development of the Negev. By 1935 Palestinians were farming 2, 109,234 dunums in the Negev, while Jewish landholdings in the Negev in 1946 did not exceed 21,000 dunums.(55)

The desert did not bloom because of financial contributions to the Zionists by naive American Jews, but because of the industriousness and profitability of the Palestinian Arab economy.

The Palestine Government made a comparison between Arab and Jewish industry in the survey it submitted for the Anglo-American Committee. It stated:

Taking the twelve industries together, the net output per head in Jewish undertakings was 87 per cent higher than in Arab undertakings. At the same time, however, labour costs were 107 per cent higher, with the result that equivalent expenditures on labour yielded 10 per cent more net output in Arab industy than in Jewish industry in spite of the fact that Jewish labour was assisted by 70 per cent more capital per head than Arab labour. One would expect that the enterprises which are most amply equipped with capital resources would show the highest net ouput per Pound of labour employed and this in fact is found to be the case if the communities are considered separately. In both Arab and Jewish undertakings grain and cereal mills employed the highest value of capital per person engaged. In both communities this industry showed the greatest net ouput per Pound of labour (if the tobacco industry is excepted). In the same way, Arab weaving establishments employed less capital per head than any other industry in the Arab sector and were second last in the scale of productivity per unit of expenditure on labour, The Jewish industries employing least capital per head were those engaged in the manufacture of boots and shoes and those in the light metal trades. Both of these industries (together with boat construction) were lowest in the scale of productivity per unit of expenditure on labour. When the corresponding industries in the two communities are compared, however, the amount of capital per head is seen to be much less decisive in its influence on the productivity of units of expenditure on labour. It is seen that in seven of the industries the productivity of labour power purchased is higher in Arab undertakings than in Jewish undertakings. The figures range from grain and c e ~ a l mills, where Arab labour was 2.28 times as effective as Jewish labour having regard to its cost, to shoes and boots, where Arab labour was 1.05 times as effective as Jewish labour. There is little doubt that the superior investment in Jewish industry and the superior skill of Jewish labour do not in some cases result in a corresponding superiority in output because the price at which these factors are purchased is higher than is justified by their greater productivity. It would appear, therefore, that unless these Jewish industries can substantially reduce their factor costs they will be at disadvantage not only in the case of competition from imported goods but even in the case of serious competition from Arab undertakings in Palestine itself.(56)

The aforementioned data and statistics show beyond reasonable doubt that the Palestinian Arabs enjoyed a highly developed, rapidly growing economy and a developed society.

If this growth had not been arrested in 1948, today Palestine would be on the same socio-economic level as Western Europe.

Of all the Mandates of the League of Nations, the Palestinian Arabs were the most developed on a per capita basis. An advanced nation was destroyed by the Zionists, replacing a socially developed nation which was economically viable with an artificial colonial entity which is an economic disaster dependent upon outside assistance to survive.

BANKING IN PALESTINE

In 1945 there were five major Jewish banks and two major Arab banks, namely, the Arab Bank, Ltd. and the Arab National Bank, Ltd. In the Survey of Palestine, the paid-up capital of the Arab Bank, Ltd. on October 31, 1945, was 815,296 Palestine Pounds and the paid-up capital of the Arab National Bank, Ltd., was 600,456 Palestine Pounds, a total of 1,415,752 Palestine Pounds, while the total paid-up capital of the five Jewish Banks on the same date was 1,088,704. The total deposits in the two Arab banks on October 31, 1945 were 6,970,728 Palestine Pounds while the total deposits on the same day in the five Jewish banks were 7,418,039 Palestine Pounds.

The survey explains the development of Arab banks as follows:

The rapid development of certain local banks during the war is noteworthy. The following table shows the paid-up capital, reserve funds, total deposits and total advances and bills discounted of the Arab Bank, Ltd. and the Arab National Bank Ltd. at the end of each year, commencing with the figures (in Palestinian Pounds) for the month of August, 1939.(57)

 

 Paid-up capital

Reserve funds

Total deposits

Total Advances
& bills
discounted

31.08.39

209,494

32,205

376,180

456,816

31.12.39

209,506

34,309

299,223

462,617

31.12.40

209,790

37,848

245,619

412,064

31.12.41

209,818

38,577

532,515

499,790

31.12.42

213,634

40,859

1,330,953

992,377

31.12.43

480,508

148,971

3,430,197

2,392,268

31.12.44

1,120,000

559,731

5,067,421

3,311,176

31.12.45

1,415,752

977,877

6,970,728

5,256,214

It will be noted that the total deposits of these two banks increased from 376, 180 Palestinian Pounds in August, 1939, to 6,970,728 Palestinian Pounds at the 31st October, 1945. This is explained by the fact that the Arab fellah (farmer) who had enjoyed, and continues to enjoy, very high prices for his products, has not only liquidated his borrowings from moneylenders, but has accumulated substantial amounts in cash which only to a small extent have been deposited with banks and the remainder hoarded. These favorable economic conditions and the exceptionally high dividends distributed by Arab banks have enabled them to place new shares on the market and to raise their paid-up capital from 209,494 Palestinian Pounds at the 3 1 st August, 1939, to 1,415,752 Palestinian Pounds at the 31st October, 1945, i.e, an increase of about 600%.

According to Z. Abramowitz in his study, Arab Economy in Palestine in 1945, published by the Zionist Organization of America:

In 1944 as well as in 1945 the Arab Bank paid a dividend of 24% on its shares. The magnitude of this dividend is indicative of the normal nature of the profits of the Arab economy before and during the war. High profits were characteristic of Arab trade, Arab industry and other branches of their economy.(58)

PALESTINE ARAB EDUCATION

The educational ethic among Palestinian Arabs is very strong, and as a result on a per capita basis Palestinian Arabs have a tradition of literacy and scholastic attainment at all levels.

The private schools in Palestine reflected the flavor of international interest in the Holy Land. A Christian Orthodox Girls' School in Beit Jala, near Bethlehem, was founded in 1858 by a Russian benefactress. St. George's British Anglican School for boys was founded in Jerusalem in 1899. Najah School was founded in Nablus in 191 8, and evolved into the present Najah University on the West Bank. The College des Freres in Jerusalem was founded by the Franciscan Order in 1875. These were but a few of many private schools in Palestine.(59)

In 1914 there were 379 private Muslim schools, 95 elementary schools and three secondary schools in Palestine.(60)

In 1947-48 there were 868 schools for Arab students in Palestine: 555 Arab public schools, 131 Muslim Arab private non-governmental schools and 182 Christian private nongovernmental schools. There were a total of 146,883 Arab students and 4,600 Arab teachers' Palestinian students in the American university in Beirut, in Egyptian, Iraqi, European and American universities were estimated to number more than 3,000. They studied law, medicine, engineering, accounting, education and other subjects.

The following Tables show the growth of Arab education from 1920 until 1947 in the Arab public system (government schools) and the Arab non-governmental schools (Muslim and Christian).(61)

THE ARAB PUBLIC SYSTEM - GOVERNMENT SCH00LS

Number of Pupils

School Year

No. Of Schools

No. Of Teachers

Boys

Girls

Total

Schol Age Population

Total Arab Population

1914-15

1919-20

171

408

8,419

2,243

10,662

1920-21

244

525

13,656

2,786

16,442

1921-22

311

639

16,606

3,033

19,639

1922-23

3 14

672

16,046

3.285

19,331

168,000

673.000

1923-24

314

685.

15,509

3,655

19, 164

1924-25

315

687

16, 147

3,734

19,881

1925-26

314

687

16, 146

3,591

19,737

1926-27

315

722

16,488

3,591

20,079

1927-28

314

733

17, 133

4.126

21,259

1928-29

310

750

17,291

4,345

21,636

1929-30

310

760

18, 174

4,782

22,956

1930-31

308

744

19,346

4,942

24,288

1931-32

305

783

19,658

5, 179

24,837

2 15,000

860,000

1932-33

299

827

21,202

5,489

26,691

1933-34

320

933

23,925

6,9 17

30,842

1934-35

350

1,055

27,737

8,268

36,005

1935-36

384

1, 148

33,053

9,712

42,765

1936-37

382

1, 176

33,203

9,510

42,7 13

1937-38

402

1,296

38,245

11, 155

49,400

1938-39

395

1,312

39,702

10,318

50,020

1939-40

402

1,340

42,219

12, 148

54,367

1940-41

403

1,364

42,661

1 1,984

54,645

1941-42

404

1,456

44,244

12,314

56,558

1942-43

403

1,452

45,603

12,722

58,325

1943-44

45 8

1,734

50,450

14,340

64,790

300,000

1,200,000

1944-45

47 8

1,872

56,359

15,303

7 1,662

1945-46

5 14

2, 156

64,536

16,506

81,042

1946-47

535

2,480

-

-

93,550

1947-48

555

2,700

-

-

103,000

330,000

1,300,000

THE ARAB PUBLIC SYSTEM - NON-GOVERNMENT SCH00LS

Muslim Schools

Christian Schools

School Year

No. of Schools

No. of Teachers

No. Of Pupils

No. Of Schools

No. of Teachers

No. Of Pupils

1920-21

-

-

-

-

-

-

1921-22

42

114

2,287

139

688

11,952

1922-23

38

112

2,477

172

786

13,348

1923-24

47

131

3,044

179

843

14.328

1924-25

50

-

3,565

184

-

15.321

1925-26

45

140

3,445

183

866

14,385

1926-27

53

184

4,522

192

1,005

14,919

1927-28

73

181

4,525

191

997

13,597

1928-29

75

195

4,719

162

1,023

14,096

1929-30

94

237

5,644

149

1,021

14, 124

1930-31

137

27 1

7,243

181

1,091

14,360

1931-32

157

330

9, 127

151

1,061

14, 100

1932-33

174

380

10,549

154

1,061

14,011

1933-34

174

404

10,862

148

1,077

14, 198

1934-35

190

418

1 1,705

179

1,204

16,067

1935-36

183

440

12, 100

187

1, 182

16,636

1936-37

175

424

12,467

181

1.25 1

18,337

1937-38

184

46 1

13,966

193

1,336

18,430

1938-39

181

44 1

14,076

192

1,355

19, 157

1939-40

178

442

14, 123

195

1,385

20,295

1940-4 1

191

477

15,389

186

1,303

19,776

1941-42

177

467

14,639

189

1,331

20,364

1942-43

161

439

14,409

181

1,383

20,993

1943-44

150

443

14,767

177

1,421

2 1,806

1944-45

135

432

14, 169

182

1,468

22,504

1945-46

131

-

14,649

182

-

29,234

1946-47

-

-

-

-

-

-

1947-48

-

-

-

-

-

-

- indicates that figures are unobtainable or were not published.

The Arab Educational System included elementary and high schools, schools for training teachers such as the Government Arab College and the Women Training College, technical instruction and agricultural education.

In spite of the fact that in 1948 Palestinians were reduced to a refugee nation in exile, their ratio of university graduates and professionals is higher than that of any other Arab, Asian or African nation. For the last 40 years Palestinian teachers, doctors, lawyers and civil servants have played a great part in the advancement of Arab countries in the Arabian Gulf and the Kingdom of Jordan. Up to the present day, Palestinians occupy important positions in all of these countries.

HEALTH SERVICES IN PALESTINE

The level of health services in Palestine was very high, both for Arabs and Jews.

In 1944 there were 2,521 medical doctors in Palestine, 742 dentists and 496 licensed pharmacists.(63)

Government, Municipal and Voluntary Hospitals in Palestine had a nominal bed strength of 3,280 in 1944, in which total Arab hospital admissions were 32,278.(63)

Government, Municipal and Voluntary Dispensaries and Clinics in Palestine in 1944 treated 309,808 Arab patients.(64)

The quantity and quality of health services available in Palestine was extremely advanced on a per capita basis, attested to by the large number of Palestinian Arab doctors and other health care professionals in exile.

The Zionists destroyed the Palestinian Arab health service infrastructure, scattering these professionals to the four winds.

The advanced level of health care in Palestine by 1944 is indicated by comparing the number of physicians per capita with the number of physicians per capita in the United States in 1980.

In 1944 Palestine had 1,697,970 inhabitants and 2,521 medical doctors, or one physician per 674 inhabitants. In 1980 the United States had 226,504,825 inhabitants and 395, 103 physicians, or one physician per 573 persons.

In 1980 Alabama had one physician per 853 inhabitants, Arkansas had one physician per 897 inhabitants, Georgia had one physician per 731 inhabitants, Idaho had one physician per 970 inhabitants, Indiana had one physician per 824 inhabitants.

Thus Palestine, although it had in 1944 slightly fewer physicians per capita than the U.S. had in 1980, had a much higher ratio of physicians to the population than that of many states in the U.S.

The Palestine Arab medical profession was highly sophisticated. It was on the level of a developed country, as is shown, for example, in the fact that the Palestine Arab Medical Association published a bi-monthly scientific journal, The Palestine Arab Medical Journal.

THE PALESTINE ARAB LABOR MOVEMENT AND TRADE UNIONS, DECEMBER 1945

The Survey of Palestine dealt extensively with the Palestine Arab labor movement and trade unions as follows:

The Arab trade union movement is almost identical with the Arab labour movement as a whole. While it is true that politics play a conspicuous part in any proceedings of Arab trade unions, there is as yet no clear line of demarcation within the movement between industrial and political action. That is true, in a sense, of all labour movements in Palestine, but, as far as Jewish labour is concerned, definite political parties have a place, in the case of the Histadruth within its own framework. Certain "intellectual" groups among the Arabs may be regarded as being associated with the Arab labour movement, and indeed certain members of these groups have played a part in promoting Arab trade unionism. It may be said, in short, that there is an Arab labour movement, the principal functions of which are trade unions. Little account is here taken of the innumerable cooperatives in the Arab community as, with few exceptions, they have been formed with no conception of organizing labour as such.

The Arab trade unions cannot boast the institutional achievements of the Histadruth. They have attemptednothing in agriculture, and very little in the way of direct production. They lack resources and few of their officials have had experience in promoting social institutions or running organized bodies. Nevertheless, the Arab tradeunion movement is important and it is already exerting an appreciable influence in the economic and social, if not political, life of the country. Arab economy is predominantly agricultural. The influence of Arab trade unionism is necessarily confined mainly to the towns. Araburban wage-earners, as a whole, are now directly affected by the activities of the Arab trade unions. Some degree of organization is apparent in most industries, especially so where considerable numbers of workers are employed in one concern, e.g. War Department installations, Government employment (especially in the Palestine Railways), the oil refineries and in transport.

Perhaps the main achievements of Arab trade unionism have been in securing trade agreements or enjoying the benefits of Government arbitrations awards in a substantial number of industries and undertakings. This development among Arab labour is comparatively new. Prior to 1942, it is doubtful whether as many as half a dozen agreements had been reached in the Arab industries of Palestine.

It is not possible to measure to what extent the growth of Arab trade unionism has been promoted by the establishment of the Government Department of Labour in 1942. It has been one of the functions of the Department, in accordance with current colonial policy, to assist the development of the Arab unions and advise them in their activities. Many difficulties hampering the establishment of Arab trade unions have been removed, and they now show a confidence which formerly was apparently wanting. Nevertheless, other factors have been operative, such as the rapid expansion of industry under war conditions, the rise in living costs and, perhaps to some extent, the influence of the Histadruth.

Arab trade unionism is not new. The Palestine Arab Workers Society, the one body with a relatively close-knit organization, was founded as long ago as 1925. It has had a continuous existence since that time. The fortunes of the Society fluctuated considerably, but from the summer of 1942 steady progress was shown. The membership and number of affiliated societies steadily increased, the society being established on a geographical basis, town by town. At the Nablus conference on 5th August, 1945, which will be further mentioned below, 17 societies were represented. The total paid up membership at that date may be conservatively estimated as having reached a figure of 15,000.

The Palestine Arab Workers Society was also the first Arab labor organization to engage in economic activities - if we exclude the Nablus Arab Labour Society, which is not a labour organization in an ordinary sense of the term, but rather an association of cooperatives. The Palestine Arab Workers Society itself controls a number of small registered cooperative societies, both consumers' and producers', and operates a savings and loans society and an employment exchange. Most of these enterprises are located in Haifa where are also the head offices of the Society.

A split, however, occurred in the ranks of the Society following the Nablus conference of 5th August, 1945, the causes of which relate back to the autumn of 1942, when a rival body called the Federation of Arab Trade Unions and Labour societies was found in Haifa. It succeeded in establishing a number of unions in individual large undertakings, and took special care in organizing skilled workers. The membership was never large and remained stable at a figure approaching 2,000. Latterly, the membership has declined, as the declared policy of the Federation has been to seek absorption in the Palestine Arab Workers Society, although without diminishing its influence. Workers were encouraged not to break away from the Palestine Arab Society, and in fact many who were already inclined to enroll in the Federation were told to join the other body.

The Federation's organizing activities were confined to Haifa and the surrounding industrial zone. The influence of the Federation, however, was much more widespread and the officials of the newer Palestine Arab Workers Society branches in Jerusalem, Jaffa and the south of Palestine sympathised with the line of policy of the Federation. A newspaper, Al Ittihad, to some extent an organ of the Federation, was widely distributed and read in Palestine Arab Workers Society branches outside Haifa.

The rift came at the Nablus conference of 5th August, 1945, when exception was taken by the southern branches of the Palestine Arab Workers Society to the method of selection of the delegates to attend the World Trade Union Conference, eventually held in Paris in September. Arab labour had already been represented at the preliminary World Trade Union Conference held in London in the previous February. The Palestine Arab Workers Society was represented by a delegate and observer and the Federation by an observer only. At the Nablus conference an attempt by the "Haifa Centre" of the Palestine Arab Workers Society sought to make the delegate in question once again the leading representative at the Paris Conference and they were successful. The larger southern branches forthwith seceded from the Society.

The next move was taken at a conference held in Jaffa on 19th August, 1945. It was attended by representatives of the seceding Palestine Arab Workers' Society branches, the Federation of Arab Trades Unions and Labour Societies, and a number of other independent groups of workers some of whom had not been previously organized. The majority of organized Arab workers were represented at the conference. An Executive Committee of the Arab Workers Congress, comprising six members of some standing in the unions, was elected. The tasks given to the Executive Committee were:

(a) to draft a constitution for the Arab Workers Congress;

(b) to convene a constituent assembly of the Congress after a defined period of time; and

(c) To act provisionally as the directing body of the new majority movement.

Al Ittihad became initially the organ of the Congress, although it is planned torestore the independence of the paper, which is primarily a political one, and substitute in its place a Congress bulletin. The Federation of Arab Trade Unions and Labour Societies ceased to be active as an independent organization and voluntarily relinquished its authority to the Congress.

The Jaffa conference also appointed two representatives to attend the Paris World Trade Union Conference. One of them had already been the representative of the Federation of Arab Trade Unions and Labour Societies at the London Conference. In point of fact, the two representatives elected appeared in Paris in the name of the Federation, as the invitations to attend had been addressed to that body. The representative of the majority Arab trade union movement sitting on the General Council of the World Trade Union Federation appointed at Paris in September, 1945, was actually there in the name of the Federation of Arab Trade Unions and Labour Societies.

It will be noted that the respective roles of the Palestine Arab Workers Society and Federation representatives who attended the London Conference were reversed at the Paris Conference. The delegate at the Paris Conference was a Federation man; the Palestine Arab Workers Society representatives were observers only. The Federation (Arab Workers Congress) representatives succeeded in convincing the Credentials Committee of the Conference that they were able to speak for the majority of organized Arab labour. The Federation delegate is one of the three Palestine trade union representatives appointed to the General Council of the World Trade Union Federation. The two others represent the Histadruth and the Palestine Labour League.

The aim of the leaders of the movement directed by the Executive Committee of the Arab Trade Union Congress is to achieve unity in the Arab trade union movement. They aspire to reach an understanding with the Palestine Arab Workers Society, but the latter so far is not reacting favorably to the proposal. It is early yet to foresee the future trend of events.

The present total of all organized Arab workers may be taken to be between 15,000 and 20,000 members.(65)

The Palestinian Arab labor movement was very advanced compared with other countries in the Middle East. It differed fundamentally from the Jewish labor movement in Palestine as follows:

1. The Palestinian Arab labor movement was primarily concerned with wages, working conditions and the health and well-being of its members, whereas the Jewish labor movement was largely motivated by political Zionist and Socialist ideology;

2. The Palestinian Arab labor movement endeavoured to reach equitable agreements with Arab employers, whereas the Jewish labor movement in Palestine endeavoured to replace private employers with businesses owned by the labor movement itself;

3. The Palestinian Arab labor movement was modeled on the American trade union concept of recognizing that the health and growth of the businesses where they were employed was important, whereas the Zionist labor movement was organized on the Marxist principle of eliminating employers in due course;

4. The Palestinian Arab labor movement was nationalist, but not racist, whereas the Jewish labor movement was, through the Zionist ideology, racist and colonialist in purpose and activity.

The Palestine Arab labor movement was a growing pool of skilled labor, whereas the Jewish labor movement stifled the growth of the economy by reducing even their laborowned enterprises to near bankruptcy, requiring subsidies from abroad to cover enormous annual deficits.

The Zionists destroyed the independent Palestinian Arab trade union movement.

PALESTINIAN ARAB SKILLED LABOR IN PUBLIC WORKS, RAILWAYS, PORTS, AND GOVERNMENT DEPARTMENTS

One of the fictions perpetrated by the Zionists is that Jews provided the skilled labor in Palestine because of the alleged incompetence of the Palestinian Arabs. This calumny is disproved by the statistics.(66)

In 1942/43 Palestinian skilled labor worked 2, 176,933 man-days, as compared with 205,400 man-days of Jewish skilled labor.

In 1942/43 Palestinian Arabs worked 512,783 man-days of skilled contract labor in the Railways, as compared with 27 Jewish man-days.

In 1942/43 Palestinian Arabs worked 275,000 man-days in the Port of Haifa, as compared with 21,600 Jewish mandays.

In 1942/43 Palestinian Arabs worked 152,487 man-days in the Department of Posts, Telegraphs and Telephones, as compared with 60,565 Jewish man-days.

In 1942/43 Palestinian Arabs worked 77, 169 man-days in the Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, as compared with 8,999 Jewish man-days.

In 1942/43 Palestinian Arabs worked 45,408 man-days in the Department of Forests, as compared with 1,310 Jewish man-days.

In 1942/43 Palestinian Arabs worked 5,516 man-days in the Department of Surveys, as compared with 125 Jewish man-days.

In 1942/43 6,651 Palestinian Arab man-days were worked in the Department of Civil Aviation.

The Municipality of Jerusalem employed 7 1, 169 Arab man-days as compared with 38,272 Jewish man-days in 1942-43. The Municipality of Haifa employed 174,548 mandays as compared with 32,428 Jewish man-days in 1942/43. The Municipality of Jaffa employed 67,469 days of Arab labor as compared with 7,807 Jewish man-days in 1942/43.

These skilled jobs were filled by Palestinian Arab workers who met the requirements of the British Administration. All of these skilled laborers lost employment following the Zionist expulsion of the Palestinian Arabs in 1948 and were reduced to a refugee existence.

THE ARABIC PRESS IN PALESTINE

In 1908 the Palestinian Arab journal Al-Karmil was founded in Haifa. In January 191 1 the daily newspaper Filastin was founded. By 1945 there were two major newspaper dailies in Palestine.(67)

The government of Palestine in its Survey of Palestine listed the following Arabic newspapers and magazines(68):

Al Akhbar Al Kanisiyeh (The Church News): An Arabic Monthly. Characteristics: Protestant church news; controlled by Deacon Marmura.

Al Bushra (The Good News): An Arabic Monthly. Characteristics: Muslim religious affairs.

Al Difa'a (The Defence): An Arabic Daily. Characteristics: The leading Muslim Arab daily newspaper in Palestine, having the largest circulation and greatest influence. It started as a radical nationalist daily some twelve years ago. In the past few years it has maintained an attitude of independence with regard to local party politics and is gradually developing into a nationalist independent daily following the pattern of Al-Ahram in Cairo.

Al Chad (Tomorrow): An Arabic Bi-weekly. Characteristics: Scientific, social, cultural and political. Left wing. Organ of the Arab Intellectual League.

Al Hadaf (The Goal): An Arabic Weekly. Characteristics: Educational, scouting, literary, social, economic, sports and theatre.

Al Ittihad (Union): An Arabic Weekly. Characteristics: Organ of the Arab Workers Society.

Al Jeel (The Century): An Arabic Weekly. Characteristics: Literary, national and social.

Al Mihmaz (The Spur): An Arabic Weekly. Characteristics: Literary, national and social.

Al Miyah Al Hayyah (The Living Waters): An Arabic Monthly. Characteristics: Political, social and literary. Left wing.

Al Muntada (The Forum): An Arabic Weekly. Characteristics: Cultural, general and radio; issued by the P.I.O.

Al Mustakbal (The Future): An Arabic Weekly. Characteristics: Social, political, economic and literary.

Al Rabitah (The Link): An Arabi Bi-monthly. Characteristics: Religious and social matters. Al Sirat al Mustaqim (The Straight Path): An Arabic Daily. Characteristics: Political, economic and literary.

Al Urdon (The Jordan): Arabic, twice-weekly. Characteristics: Political, economic and literary.

Al Wafa' (Loyalty): An Arabic Weekly. Characteristics: Political, economic and literary.

Al Wihda (Unity): An Arabic Weekly. Characteristics: Political, social and cultural. Independent political views.

Falastin (Palestine): An ArabicDaily. Characteristics: For some time pro-Mufti; later an organ of the Istiklal Party. For the past few years it has adopted an attitude of marked neutrality and independence in its treatment of local party affairs and its policy seems to be guided by public opinion and nationalist sentiments.

Haqiqat Ul Amar (The True Fact): An Arabic Weekly. Characteristics: Political, economic and cultural. Published by the Histadrut.

Palcor News Bulletin: Arabic, three times a week. Characteristics: News.

Palestine Arab Medical Journak Arabic, Bi-monthly. Characteristics: Published by the Palestine Arab Medical Association.

Review of the Chamber of Commerce, Haifa: Arabic Quarterly. Characteristics: Commercial and economic. News of the Chamber.

Other newspapers were published in Palestine for a short time. They were:

Jaridat Al Jamia Al Arabiah (The Arab League Newspaper), 1927-1935.
Alsirat Al Mustakim (The Straight Path), 1924-1928.
Majalat Al Arab (The Arabic Magazine), 1932-1934.

CULTURAL ADVANCEMENT OF THE PALESTINE ARABS

Contrary to the Zionist assertions that Palestine was a cultural backwater, Palestine was a dynamic center of Arab culture, producing many scholars and authors. Between 1919 and 1944,209 books were published in Palestine, while many more works by Palestine Arabs were published in Beirut, Damascus and Cairo, as well as in England, America and France.

Some leading Palestinian scholars and authors during the recent past in Palestine were:(69)

Yusuf Diya-uddin Pasha al-Khalidi was a noted scholar in the 19th century who lectured at the University of Vienna. He wrote the first Arabic-Kurdish dictionary.

Khalil Sakakini was a distinguished scholar and essayist. He was the founder of the Dusturiyah School in Jerusalem in 1909 and its headmaster. Among his books was Readings in Philology and Literature.

kuhi al-Khalidi was a pioneer in modem historiography in the late 19th and early 20th century. He wrote, among other works, The Eastern Question, and A Comparative Study of Arabic and French Literature.

Adil Zu'aiter was a lawyer and translator from French into Arabic. He translated works of Rousseau, Voltaire, Anatole France, Montesquieu and Lamartine.

Ahmad Samih al-Khalidi, who held a degree in Psychology from the American University of Beirut, was the author of several volumes on pedagogy that became standard textbooks in several Arab countries. He also translated into Arabic works by Maria Montessori and the German psychologist Wilhelm Stekel.

Khalil Baydas was a Russian scholar and pioneer of the modem Palestinian novel. As early as 1898 he translated some of the works of Tolstoy and Pushkin into Arabic.

Ishak Musa Husseini held a degree from the School of Oriental Studies, London University, and was the author of several works on Islamic and Arab history in addition to a novel, The Diaries of a Hen.

Abdurrahman Bushnaq was a graduate of the Arab College in Jerusalem and of Cambridge University whose publications include a translation into Arabic of The Splendid Spur by Sir Arthur Quiller-Couch.

Qadri Tuqan from Nablus was a mathematician and the author of a history of Arab science.

George Antonius was the author of The Arab Awakening, a history highly acclaimed in England and the United States. In 1930 he became Middle Eastern Associate at the Institute of World Affairs in New York.

Francis Khayat was the author of Lectures in Mercantile Law.

Is'af al-Nashashibi was the author of Modern Science and Us.

Anbarah Salam al-Khalidi was the translator of Homer's The Odyssey.

Faidi al-Alami was an Islamic scholar of the late 19th and early 20th century who wrote a concordance to the Holy Koran.

Mrs. Matiel Moghannam was a Palestinian Arab feminist leader who wrote a book published in London in 1937, The Arab Woman and the Palestine Problem.

Salim Katul, a teacher in Jerusalem, was the author of a series of textbooks in Arabic on the natural sciences.

Mohammad Izat Darwazah wrote several books from 1950-51 about the Arab Renaissance and Arab Nationalism.

Mustapha Murad Al Dabagh wrote an historical and geographical encyclopedia.

In 1923 Omar Alsaleh, Al Barghouty and Khalil Totah wrote books on the history of Palestine and studies of Arab customs and folklore.

Wadi Al Bustani wrote a book about the Palestine Mandate in 1936 entitled, It is Null and Void.

In 1936 Amin Akl, Ibrahim Najim and Abu Nasr wrote a book about the struggle of the Palestinians.

In 1937 Issa Alsifri wrote a book about Arab Palestinians between Zionism and the Mandate.

In 1946 Najib Sadaqah wrote a book on the problem of Palestine.

In 1932 Moharnmad Ali Taher wrote a book on Nazarat Al Shura.

In 1939 Ahmad Tarbeen wrote a book, Palestine, Zionism and Colonialism. He also wrote a book containing his lectures on the history of Palestine 1936-45.

Musa Al Alami wrote The Lesson of Palestine, 1949. Thabit al-Khalidi was the author of a chemistry textbook.

Wasfi Anabtawi was the author of several geography textbooks.

Sa'id B. Hamadeh, Professor of Applied Economics, American University of Beirut, wrote Economic Organization of Palestine in 1938.

Sami Wafa Dajjani, formerly Chemical Engineer of the Palestine Potash Company, wrote The History of the Dead Sea.

Basim Faris wrote Electric Power in Syria and Palestine in 1936.

Notable Palestinian Arab poets included Ibrahim Tuqan, Issam Abbasi, Muhammad Adnani, Jalal Zurayq, and Kamal Nasir among many others.

The above list is only representative of Palestinian Arab scholars and authors who made significant cultural contributions during the years leading up to 1948. It is by no means exhaustive, but suffices to illustrate the qualitative level of culture among the Palestinian Arabs.

THE HOLY PLACES OF PALESTINE

The following description of the Christian, Muslim and Jewish holy places in Palestine are produced verbatim from pages 120-129 of the Supplement to Survey of Palestine.(70)

The following notes on the Holy Places give special emphasis to the religious interests in Palestine of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.

It is not intended to refer, in these notes, to the centuriesold disputes and controversies regarding the differences of creed and origin of the various confessions of Faith, or claims to rights by different sects within the same shrine or at the same site in Palestine.

The notes are confined to a very summary record of the connections with Palestine of the three great monotheistic faiths, each of which honours the Patriarch Abraham, the Friend of God, who lived in Palestine and is buried in the cave of Machpelah at Hebron.

CHRISTIANITY: CHRISTIAN HOLY PLACES

Christians throughout the world regard Palestine with special veneration as the place where the thirty-three years of Christ's life were spent. From Bethlehem, in the south, to Capernaum, in the north, from the Jordan River to Emmaus, the land is dotted with shrines and sites associated with the life of Christ.

It was in Bethlehem that Jesus was born, and that the shepherds came to worship Him. These events are commemorated by the great basilica of the Church of the Nativity, built by Constantine about 330 A.D. and rebuilt by Justinian in its present form. It is one of the oldest Christian churches in the world.

There are many parts of Galilee associated with the Holy Family, and the early years of the life of Jesus - Nazareth, where the Boy lived with His parents, the well where He and His Mother drew water, the Synagogue where His teachings angered the inhabitants, and the neighbouring cliff from which the mob threatened to throw Him down; Cana of Galilee (Kafr Kanna), where His first miracle was performed; the shores of the Lake Tiberias, including the Synagogue of Capernaum, where many of the scenes of His early ministry took place and where miracles were performed. Situated near the Lake is the scene of the Sermon on the Mount, or the Beatitudes, of the Feeding of the Multitude, of His walking on the waters and of one of His appearances, after His resurrection, to certain of His disciples. The summit of Mount Tabor, situated to the south-east of Nazareth, has long been venerated as the place of His transfiguration and therevelation of His Glory to two disciples, Peter and John.

It is at and around Jerusalem, that we find the greatest number of shrines and sites associated with the Christian faith. On account of the importance of Jerusalem to the Christians of the world, there are established in the City ecclesiastical organisations representing all the more important confessions of the Christian faith, including three Patriarchs and the Custos of Terra Sancta.

It was in Jerusalem that the last instructions of Christ to His disciples were given, directing them to go forth and preach the gospel in every land. After His Resurrection, it was in Jerusalem that Jesus directed that "repentance and remission of sins should be preached in his name, among all nations, beginning from Jerusalem."

It was at Jerusalem, in the house of Mark (now identified with the Church of St. Mark), or at Mount Zion, that the early Christians first met for worship.

Amongst the places of special importance to Christians in and around Jerusalem, are:

The Mount of Olives, the Garden of Gethsemane, and the place of the Passion of Christ, the Upper Chamber of the Last Supper, the Judgment Hall of Pontius Pilate, the Via Dolorosa, Calvary, and the Place of Crucifixion, the Stone of Unction (where the Body of Christ was laid after being taken down from the Cross), the Tomb, and the place of Resurrection, and the place of Ascension on the Mount of Olives. In addition, many othersitesconnected with thelifeand teaching of Christ exist in the vicinity of Jerusalem.

Places of special interest and pilgrimage to Christians outside Jerusalem include:

'Ein Karim, where Mary, the Mother of Jesus, visited Her cousin Elizabeth, and was recognised as the future Mother of Christ. John the Baptist was born at 'Bin Karim and performed the ministry on the River Jordan, where he baptised Jesus. Between Jerusalem and the Jordan, on a high ridge, is the site known as the Hill of Temptation, where Jesus was tempted by the devil for a period of forty days. At Bethany (El 'Eizariya village), Christ raised Lazarus from the dead, and from here He began His triumphal entry into Jerusalem. It was at Emmaus, on the hills west of Jerusalem, that the Risen Christ revealed Himself to certain of His followers. The following list gives some details of the more important Christian Religious Sites in the country, at which special ceremonies are held periodically:

JERUSALEM DISTRICT Jerusalem OldCity: Church of the Holy Sepulchre, which includes the Place of Crucifixion, the Stone of Unction, the place of Resurrection, the Grotto of the Finding, or Invention, of the Cross, and many other lesser sites. The Judgment Hall, the Stations of the Cross along the Via Dolorosa, the Cathedral of St. James, the Church of St. Mark. Mount Sion: The Chamber of the Last Supper. The Mount of Olives and the Kidron Valley: The place of the Ascension, the Garden of Gethsemane, the Tomb of the Virgin Mary, Bethany (the Raising of Lazarus). Jericho: Place of Baptism, the Mount of Temptation. Bethlehem: The Church of the Nativity, with the Grotto of the Manger, the Grotto of St. Jerome, the Field of the Sheperds. 'Ein Karim: The traditional birthplace of St. John the Baptist, and the place of the Visitation of the Virgin Mary to Her cousin Elizabeth. El Qubeiba (Emmaus):The House of Cleopas.

GALILEE - ACRE DISTRICT

Nazareth: The Well, the place of Annunciation, the place of Precipitation. Mount Tabor: The place of the Transfiguration. The Area of the Sea of Galilee, or Lake Tiberias:Including the site of Capernaum, of the miracle of the Feeding of the Multitude, and of Jesus' walking on the water.

SAMARIA DISTRICT

Nablus: Jacob's Well. Shrines not connected with the life of Jesus, but venerated by Christians:- Jaffa: Tabitha's Tomb, House of Simon the Tanner. Lydda: The Tomb of St. George. Haifa: Mount Camel.

All the above shrines and sites, together with many others, have, throughout the years, been described in detail by Church authorities, pilgrims, travellers, and in hand books. There is no unanimity in all the cases recorded above. In some, twoor more sites are associated with the same incident: in not a few cases the ownership of the actual site and the rights at a particular site are in dispute between two or more of the authorities of the various confessions; in some cases, there are doubts as to the authenticity of a particular site. But there can be no doubt that all the sites enumerated have been sanctified by the devotion and veneration of generations of worshippers coming from every land in which the Christian Faith has adherents.

ISLAM: MUSLIM HOLY PLACES

In 570 A.D., in Mecca, a son was born to Abdullah, son of Abdel-Muttalib. and was named Mohammad.

In his 25th year, Mohammad married Khadija, a wealthy widow of amerchant, whohadentrusted him with theconduct of some of her caravans to Syrian and southern Arabia.

During a period of solitary sojourn, in a cave in Mount Hera, near Mecca, Mohammad felt his spirit moved with divine power, and was convinced that he had been chosen by God as His Ambassador. So began Mohammad's prophetic career, about 610 or 612 of the Christian Era.

At first, Mohammad made Jerusalem the Holy Place to which the Faithful had to turn their faces when they prayed; thus, Jerusalem became the first Kibla, and has been respected as such ever since. Later on, however, while living at Medina, whither he had had to flee with his followers from Mecca, he changed the Kibla, or Holy Place, to Mecca.

In 630 A.D. Mohammed re-entered Mecca at the head of a victorious host, and the teaching of Islam was firmly established. From the time of the Prophet's entry into Mecca, the domination of Islam in Arabia was only a matter of time. For a period the religious fervour of the Moslems was directed against the stubborn resistance of the pagan Arabian tribes. There were many bloody encounters, but finally Mohammad and his followers succeeded in subduing the adversaries of "The Prodaimer of Truth".

During the lifetime of the Prophet a vital connection was forged between Islam and Palestine. The Koran states that Mohammad was transported by night from Mecca to Jerusalem, and that, from the top of Mount Moriah, the site of the Hebrew Temple, then lying desolate, he ascended to heaven. The Prophet's horse, Burak, was accommodated during this visit beside what is now called the Western or Wailing Wall of the Temple Area. This incident in the life of the Prophet is referred to in the Koran, in the following words:-

"Glory be to Him who carried His servant by night from the sacredTemple of Mecca to the Temple that is more remote (i.e., the Temple of Jerusalem), whose precinct we have blessed that we might show Him of our signs, for He is the Hearer, the Seer."

Consequently, the Temple Area of Jerusalem, now known as the Haram esh-Sharif, "the Noble Sanctuary," ranks as a Moslem shrine next to the Holy Cities of Mecca and Medina.

Towards the end of the 7th century A.D., the Caliph Abdel-Malik, whose title was disputed by a rival Caliph in Mecca, was moved to erect a sanctuary in Jerusalem on the site of the Temple to which the followers of the Omaiyad persuasion could direct their devotions. No efforts were spared by Abd-el-Malik in the construction of "The Dome of the Rock," erected on the traditional site from which the Prophet had ascended. This magnificent structure still stands, one of the architectural glories of Jerusalem. It was on the rock so enshrined, that according to tradition, the Patriarch Abraham was preparing to offer up his son Isaac when the Almighty intervened.

Around this shrine and its vast enclosure there have, during the ages, arisen many buildings accommodating schools, libraries, and other pious institutions connected with Islam.

In 636 A.D., the Caliph Omar occupied Jerusalem. In 969 A.D., Jerusalem was conquered by the Egyptians, and in 1087 A.D., it fell to the Seljuk Turks whose outrageous behavior culminated, in 1096 A.D., in the launching of the Crusades. In 1099 A.D., Palestine was occupied by the Crusader invaders from the west, and the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem was established, so breaking the Moslem domination established by Omar. The Crusader regime continued until 1 187 A.D., when the followers of Islam, under Saladin, overwhelmed the Christians under King Guy himself, at the battle of Hattin. Following his overwhelming victory at Hattin on the 2nd of July, 1187, Saladin wasted no time in exploiting his success and, on the 2nd of October, 1187 which was the anniversary of the Blessed Laqilat el Mi'raj, or "Eve of Ascension" of the Prophet, he accepted the surrender of the City. Thus re-established, Moslem rule continued uninterrupted until 1917 A.D., when Lord Allenby entered the Holy City at the head of a victorious and triumphant army.

In 1244 A.D., Jerusalem was over-run by Khwarizmian Turks. In 1269 A.D., the country came under the control of the Mameluke rulers of Egypt. In 1516 A.D., it passed into the hands of Selim I, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, whose successor, Suleiman the Magnificent, constructed the City's present walls between 1539 and 1542. The Turks ruled until 1917.

Each and all of these Moslem powers contributed to the shrines of Palestine, each enhanced the Moslem religious heritage in the Holy Land. Since, at least, the time of the Caliph Omar, the land of Palestine is covered with sites and buildings which are objects of devotion to the local inhabitants and, moreover, to thousands of pilgrims from abroad, who devote many years of energy towards the creation of an opportunity to visit these places.

The following list contains particulars of the more important of the Moslem shrines and sites in Palestine, at most of which religious ceremonies are held periodically:-

JERUSALEM DISTRICT

Jerusalem Town: Haram esh-Sharif, including the ~ o m e of the Rock, the Aqsa Mosque, and the area of which they form pan.

El Burak esh-Sharif, which includes the Western or Wailing Wall.

The Tomb of David (Nebi Daoud).

Mount of Olives: The Christian Place of Ascension.

El 'Eizariya Village (Bethany): The Tomb of Lazarus.

Nebi Samwil: The Tomb of the Prophet Samuel.

Jericho: The Tomb of Moses (Nebi Musa).

Bethlehem: Rachel's Tomb.

Hebron: Haram esh-Sharif of Sidna Ibrahim.

LYDDA DISTRICT

El Haram Village: Sidna Aly Shrine.

Nebi Rubin: Mosque and Shrine.

Ramleh: Nebi Saleh.

GAZA DISTRICT

Gaza Town: Sidna Aly Mosque.

SAMARIA DISTRICT

Nablus Town: Rijal el Amud and Awlad Ya'qub.

Balata Village: The Tomb of the Prophet Joseph.

GALILEE-ACRE DISTRICT

Acre Town: Ahmad Pasha Jazzar Mosque.

There is a very great number of other Moslem shrines, monuments, and mosques throughout the country.

JUDAISM: JEWISH HOLY PLACES

The history of the Hebrew religion or Judaism, is principally contained in the Old Testament, where it is recorded how the Ten Commandments of the Law were received by Moses from Jehovah on Mount Horeb in Sinai; how, during the wanderings in Sinai, the Ark of the Covenant was constructed and the furnishing appointed by order of Moses, as inspired by Jehovah, and how, after the successful invasion of Palestine by the Children of Israel and their settlement in the land, the Temple was built in Jerusalem by Solomon, to the glory of Jehovah.

The Old Testament also records the vicissitudes and trials undergone by the Hebrews during the period extending for some 1,000 years, from the time of their entry into Palestine, now placed at about 1350 B.C., to the final record of Malachi, dated about 390 B.C.

Towards the close of the period of the Old Testament, the Children of Israel were largely dispersed throughout the Persian Empire. There existed in Jerusalem, where the Temple worship had been revived, a remnant chiefly of the tribe of Judah together with a few priests of the Levites.

With one short period in which the Jews again enjoyed some degree of independence - that of the Maccabean Revolt, which occurred about 165 B.C. during the Greek occupation of Palestine - the history of Palestinian Jews during the 400 years following Malachi was chiefly connected with the fortunes of the Western World.

In 63 B.C., the Romans, under Pompey, gained control of Palestine. Jewish influence and institutions were finally destroyed in 70-71 A.D., with the destruction of Jerusalem and the Temple and the dispersal of the Jewish inhabitants by Titus.

Thereafter, many of the teachers of the Law took refuge in Northern Palestine, particularly Tiberias, where schools were established, where the Talmud was taught, and the worshipof the synagogue replaced the worshipof the Temple; hence the special importance of Jewish sites in Northern Palestine.

Always, and at all times during each and every captivity or dispersal, a remnant of the Children of Israel has existed in Palestine, and throughout all ages the Jewish people, no matter what vicissitudes they endured, have recalled Jerusalem in their prayers, their songs of praise, and their hopes and aspirations: "If I forget thee, 0 Jerusalem, Let my right hand forget her cunning." These words were written about 500 B.C. by Hebrews, then held captive in Babylon.

Today, throughout the world, the Jews, in their prayers on the Day of Atonement and The Passover, use the words, "In Jerusalem next year."

There is evidence to show that, during the Roman occupation which ted to the dispersal, the practice had already commenced of sending presents to the Temple in Jerusalem and of visiting the Holy City; thus began the custom of sending contributions to the Holy Places and of making pilgrimages to the religious sites, customs which have had such a profound influence on the history of Palestine.

The following list gives details of the more important Jewish religious sites in the country, at which special ceremonies are held periodically:-

JERUSALEM DISTRICT

Jerusalem Old City: The Wailing Wall. Ancient and Modern Synagogues. Traditional tomb of David. The Brook Siloam. The Bath of Rabbi Ishmael. The Tomb of Simon the Just, etc.

Mount of Olives and Kidron Valley: Ancient cemetery and Absalom's tomb. Tomb of Zachariah and various other tombs.

Bethlehem: Rachel's Tomb.

Hebron: The Cave of Machpelah. Abraham's Tree. The Tombs of Yishay (Jesse, father of David) and Abner (son of Ner).

NORTHERN PALESTINE


Safad: Ancient synagogues and tombs of holy men, including those of the famous mystic Rabbi, Issac Lurieh, and Joseph Caro, the famous Jewish legislator and author of the Shulhan Aruch, etc.

Meirun: Ruins of an ancient synagogue, since the days of the Mishan and the Talmud.

Tombs of Rabbi Simon Bar Yohai and Rabbi Eleazar. The Yeshivah of Bar Yohai and home for the aged, and many other tombs and burial caves.

Tiberias: A number of holy places and burial caves, including the tombs of Maimonides, Rabbi Yohannan Ben Zakai, Rabbi Aqiba and others.

Tiberias Hot Springs (Hammath): Ancient synagogues, the college of Rabbi Meir Baal ha-Ness of the Merasler, and his tomb.

SAMARIA DISTRICT
Awarta
: The reputed burial place of Aaron, the High Priest, and his sons.

One of the greatest modem frauds practiced by the Zionists on the Jews and gentiles of the world is that the "Western" or "Wailing" wall in Jerusalem is a part of the Temple. This wall is not a part of the First Temple built by King Solomon, nor even of the Second Temple built by the Edomite King Herod. This has been proved by the investigation of a League of Nations Commission in 1929, the conclusion of which was confirmed by the Mandatory power in an Order-in-Council in 193 1, which stated, inter alia: "To the Moslems belong the sole ownership of, and the sole proprietary right to, the Western Wall, seeing that it forms an integral part of the Haram-esh-Sherif area, which is Waqf property. To the Moslems there also belongs the ownership of the pavement in front of the Wall and of the adjacent so-called Moghrabi (Moroccan) Quarter opposite the Wall, inasmuch as the lastmentioned property was made Waqf under Moslem Sharia law, it being dedicated to charitable purposes."(71)

The above list of Jewish holy places demonstrates how their claims to an exclusive right in Palestine are mitigated by reality. Palestine is holy to Christians, Muslims and Jews, and exclusive claims to it by any one of these groups are to be deplored.

NOTES TO CHAPTER TWO

1. Abraham Granott, The Land System in Palestine (London: Eyre & Spotiswoode, 1952), p. 14.

2. Walid Khalidi, Before Their Diaspora (Washington, D.C.: Institute for Palestine Studies, 1984), pp. 28-29.

3. Guy Le Strange, Palestine Under the Moslems: A Description of Syria and the Holy Land from A.D. 650 to 1500, Translated from the Works of the Medieval Arab Geographers (1890; reprinted Beirut: Khayat, I965), p. 28.

4. Richard Bevis, "Making the Desert Bloom: an Historical Picture of Pre-Zionist Palestine," The Middle East Newsletter, volume 2, February-March 197 1, p. 4.

5. Cited in James Reilly, "The Peasantry of Late Ottoman Palestine," Journal of Palestine Studies, volume 10, No. 4, 198 1, p. 84.

6. Alexander Scholch, "The Economic Development of Palestine, 1856-1882," Journal of Palestine Studies, volume 10, No. 3, 198 1, pp. 36-58.

7. Ibrahim Abu-Lughod, ed., The Transformation of Palestine (Illinois: Northwestern Press, 197 l ), p. 126.

8. Marwan R. Beheiry, "The Agricultural Exports of Southern Palestine, 1885-1 9 14," Journal of Palestine Studies, volume 10, No. 4, 198 1, p. 67.

9. Ibid., pp. 75-76.

10. Ibid., p. 75.

11. Ha'aretz, April 4, 1969.

12. The Jerusalem Post International Edition, March 5, 1988, p. 7.

13. Khalidi, p. 38.

14. The Palestine Yearbook 1945-1946, published by the Zionist Organization of America, p. 233.

15. A Survey of Palestine, Prepared in December 1945 and January 1946 for the Information of the Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry (Jerusalem: Palestine Government Printer, 1946), volume 2, pp. 946-954; and Supplement to Survey of Palestine, Notes Compiled for the Information of the United Nations Special Committee on Palestine (Jerusalem: Palestine Government Printer, 1947), pp. 139-141.

16. Palestine's Economic Future: A Review of Progress and Prospects (London: Percy Lund Humphries and Co., Ltd., 1946), pp. 19-23.

17. Survey of Palestine, volume 1, p. 281.

18. Ibid., p. 281.

19. Supplement to Survey of Palestine, p. 37.

20. Survey of Palestine, volume 1, p. 337.

21. Statistical Abstract of Palestine, 1944-45, compiled and published by the Department of Statistics of the Government of Palestine, p. 226.

22. Ibid., p. 225. Also, Survey of Palestine, volume 1, pp. 314- 315.

23. Survey of Palestine, volume 1, p. 320.

24. Ibid., pp. 325-326.

25. Enumeration of Livestock, 1943, Government of Palestine, Office of Statistics, Special Bulletin No. 9, dated 1945.

26. Palestine Government Census of Industries 1928, pp. 20-24.

27. Statistical Abstract of Palestine, 1944-1945, p. 58.

28. Ibid., p. 59.

29. General Monthly Bulletin of Current Statistics of the Government of Palestine, May 1944, pp. 180- 186.

30. Ibid., p. 7.

31. The Near and Middle East Who's Who, volume 1, Palestine and Trans-Jordan, 1945- 1946 (Jerusalem: 1943, pp. 322-324.

32. Sa'id B. Himadeh, Economic Organization of Palestine (Beirut: American University Press, 1938), p. 217.

33. Ibid., p. 266.

34. Ibid., p. 218.

35. Ibid., pp. 218-219.

36. Ibid., p. 267. Also, Memoranda for the Palestine Royal Commission, Memo No. 35, p. 170.

37. Ibid., p. 220.

38. Ibid.

39. The Near and Middle East Who's Who, volume I, pp. 308311.

40. Himadeh, Economic Organization of Palestine, p. 262.

41. Figures for 1928-1931 taken from the Statistical Abstract of Palestine 1936; figures for the following years from Reports to the League of Nations 1937, p. 230.

42. Himadeh, p. 262.

43. Ibid., p. 265.

44. Ibid., p. 274.

45. Ibid., p. 275. Also, Memoranda to the Palestine Royal Commission, Memo No. 35, pp. 172-173.

46. Ibid., p. 277.

47. Ibid., p. 220.

48. Statistical Abstract of Palestine, 1944-45, p. 241.

49. Ibid., p. 238.

50. National Income of Palestine, Department of Statistics, Government of Palestine, Special Bulletin No. 12, 1944, p. 2.

51. General Monthly Bulletin of Current Statistics, December 1947, Department of Statistics, Government of Palestine, Jerusalem, 1947, p. 653.

52. Statistical Abstract of Palestine, 1944-45, p. 267.

53. Himadeh, p. 219.

54. The Palestine Yearbook 1945-1946, p. 434.

55. The Area of Cultivable Land in Palestine (Jerusalem: Jewish Agency, 1946), p. 13.

56. Survey of Palestine, volume 3, pp. 1237- 1 274.

57. Ibid., volume 2, p. 559.

58. L. Abramowitz, "Arab Economy in Palestine in 1945," The Palestine Yearbook 1945-1946, pp. 220-221.

59. Khalidi, pp. 70.73, 167, 175.

60. A. L. Tibawi, Arab Education in Mandatory Palestine (London: Luzac & Co., 1956), p. 20.

61. Ibid., p. 270.

62. Statistical Abstract of Palestine, 1944-45, No. 15 of 1946, p. 266.

63. Ibid., p. 255.

64. Ibid., p. 262.

65. Survey of Palestine, volume 2, p. 763-766.

66. Ibid., volume 1, pp. 772-779.

67. Khalidi, p. 38.

68. Survey of Palestine, volume 3, pp. 1346- 1356.

69. Extract from Khalidi, Before Their Diaspora. Also, Bayan Nuweheid Al Hut, Political Leaders and Political Organizations in Palestine 1917-1948 (Institute for Palestine Studies, 198 I).

70. Supplement to the Survey of Palestine, pp. 120-129.

71. Palestine (Western or Wailing Wall) Order in Council, 1931, Schedule I, p. 39.

 



Encyclopedia of the Palestine Problem
By Issa Nakhleh

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