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Encyclopedia of the Palestine Problem




Between 1939 and 1945 Zionist leaders in Palestine directed three bands of killers, the Hagana, the Irgun Z'vai Leumi, and the Stern Gang, all of which specialized in inventing and committing a wide variety of terrorist crimes. Each one of the present sinister top Israeli leaders was a member of one or the other of these three terrorist organizations. Israeli leaders are the Godfathers of terrorism in Palestine and in the Middle East. They are the inventors and masters of international terrorism.


After the London conference of 1939 between the British government and representatives of the Arab governments, the Palestinian Arabs and the Jewish Agency, the British govemment issued the White Paper of May, 1939, declaring its intention regarding the future government of Palestine:

1. The objective of His Majesty's Government is the establishment within ten years of an independent Palestine State which will be in treaty relations with the United Kingdom as will provide satisfactorily for the commercial and strategic requirements of both countries in the future; 2. The independent State should be one in which Arabs and Jews share in government in such a way as to ensure that the essential interests of each community are safeguarded.(1)


The American Zionist Conference held in New York in May 1942 formulated the "Biltmore Resolutions." Chief of these resolutions was that Palestine be established as a Jewish Commonwealth integrated in the structure of the new democratic world.(2) In a note from the War Office to the British cabinet it was stated:

In October 1942, the "Biltmore Programme" was discussed at a meeting of the Inner Zionist General Council in Jerusalem and was approved. The salient points of this Programme are:

(a) Affirmation of the unalterable rejection of the White Paper.

(b) That the Jewish Agency be vested with the control of immigration into Palestine.

(c) That Palestine be established as a Jewish Commonwealth.

(d) The formation of a Jewish military force, fighting under its own flag and under the command of the United Nations.

In both public and private utterance, Zionist leaders have for some time been asserting their determination to resist by force any attempt to frustrate the attainment of what they consider to be their legitimate aims in Palestine, that is, the Biltmore Programme. The rank and file of the Zionist Party, too, have shown an increasingly uncompromising spirit as the Spring of 1944, the end of the period of the White Paper of 1939, approaches.

The New Zionist (Revisionist) Organization has always had as its objective a Jewish State on both sides of the Jordan; and although the Organization has appeared more cooperative with the British since the outbreak of war than the Zionist Organization has, it is not to be supposed that the Revisionists have lost sight of their ultimate aims or in any way weakened in their determination to achieve them, A setback to Zionist aims, which are a stage on the way to New Zionist aims, is a setback to Revisionism.(3)

Commenting on this the High Commissioner (in his Telegram 1495A of 21 November, 1942) stated that "these developments mean that official Zionist policy has been shown publicly to be maximalist." Though the Revisionists have not formally adopted these Resolutions, this is only because their policy is Palestineplus Transjordan as a Jewish State, and acceptance would imply a climb down from their maximum demands. (Revisionists control the Irgun Z'vai Leumi illegal terrorist army of about 3,000).(4)

In a cable from the Government of Palestine to the Secretary of State for the Colonies on October 2, 1944, the government stated:

It may be useful if I supplement my telegram No. 1245 by some general observations regarding the present situation.

I need hardly stress the extent and development of the terrorist campaign which is being carried on in Palestine, culminating in the unsuccessful attempt to assassinate the King's representative, recently concerted, and large scale attacks on Police Stations, and the brutal murder of a Senior Police Officer in the streets of Jerusalem.

Most dangerous development is the growth in numbers of Jewish young men and women who are becoming infected with the gangster virus; these are providing recruits for the terrorist organization. As well as active recruits, passive sympathisers with the terrorists' aims, even while they doubt the wisdom of their methods, are multiplying, especially amongst young people; thus there is a tendency for Yishuv to become more and more demoralised by absorption of this poison.(5)

On September 10, 1945, the British Secretary of State for the Colonies submitted a memorandum to the Prime Minister in which he stated:

The young Jewish extremists, the product of a vicious education system, know neither toleration nor compromise; they regard themselves as morally justified in violence directed against any individual or institution that impedes the complete fulfillment of their demands. In a similar spirit their ancestors in the second century B.C. laid waste Palestine until a ravaged countryside and ruined cities marked the zenith of Hasmonaean power. The prototypes of the Stern Group and National Military Organization are the Zealots and Assassins according to whose creed even Jews married to Gentiles were worthy of death in Roman times. These Zealots of today, from Poland, Russia and the Balkans have yet to learn toleration and recognition of the rights of others. As the Foreign Secretary said recently of the Balkans, these people do not understand the meaning of the word democracy. The Jewish Agency may deplore terrorism; but every immoderate speech ... the flagrant disregard on the one hand for the authority of Government in maintaining law and order and on the other for the Arab case, the chauvinism and intolerance of their educational system, all contribute to an atmosphere in which the fanatic and the terrorist flourish. The Jewish leaders appear to be deliberately pushing extremism to a point when an explosion can no longer be avoided and do not scruple to use the plight of the Jews in Europe as a main political excuse. There are many Jews who deplore this state of affairs, but the rigidity of the discipline imposed by the political machine effectively discourages criticism except where it has no practical effect on Zionist policy. The Jews, like so much in Europe, need education in toleration and democracy.(6)

In a note to the British Cabinet it was stated:

Ben Gurion publicly declared on 7 June, 1944 that, though he once supported partition, in view of the changed world situation of Jewry he now rejected it, and reaffirmed his uncompromising support of the full Biltmore programme, to which the Zionist organization as a whole and most of its constituent parties are committed (this programme demands all Palestine as a Jewish commonwealth).

This policy was reaffirmed shortly afterwards by Mr. Shertok, head of the Political Dept. of the Jewish Agency, who at a Press conference stated that "the attitude of the Executive of the Jewish Agency in regard to the partition of Palestine was now negative. Zionist policy .... was based on the Biltmore programme.(7)

The Jewish Agency and the Hagana, headed by David Ben Gurion, the Irgun Z'vai Leumi headed by Menahem Begin, and the Stern Gang co-headed by Yitzhak Shamir, started a campaign of terrorism against members of the British armed forces, British police, Palestinian police and the Palestinian civilian population.

Terrorist operations from 1939-1948 were carried out after being approved by the United Forces or what was called the Command of the United Resistance Movement, which was composed of representatives of the Hagana, the Irgun and the Stern Gang. Moshe Sneh, Israel Galili and others represented the Hagana, Menahem Begin and others represented the Irgun, and Abraham Stern, Nathan Yellin-Mor and others represented the Stern Gang.

The operations agreement between the three terrorist organizations was as follows:

1. The Hagana organization is initiating a military campaign against the British government. (The "Tenuat Hariieri" or United Resistance Movement is born.)

2. The Irgun and LEHI (Stern Gang) will not carry out their operational plans without the approval of the command of the Tenuat Hameri.

3. The Irgun and LEHI will carry out the operational plans assigned to them by the command of Tenuat Hameri.

4. The discussions of the proposed operations will not be formal. Representatives of the three fighting organizations will meet regularly, or as the need arises, in order to discuss the plan from a political and practical standpoint.

5. After the operations are approved in principle, the experts of the three organizations will discuss the details of the execution.

6. The approval of the Tenuat Hameri command is not necessary for arms acquisition (taking arms from the British). The Irgun and LEHI are allowed to pursue such operations on their own.

7. The agreement among the three fighting organizations is based on the "commandment of active action."

8. If at any time the Hagana is ordered to give up the military campaign against the British rule, the Irgun and LEHI will continue to fight...(8)

Menahem Begin referred to the agreement between the Zionist terrorist organizations as follows:

The agreement between the groups forming together the Resistance Movement, that is to say between the Jewish Agency and Haganah and the underground organizations, was not written in ink but sealed in blood. Its fundamental condition was action. It imposed grave limitations on us, but we observed it not only in the spirit but even in the unwritten letter."(9)

Begin gave examples of the terrorist operations approved by the United Forces of the terrorist organizations:

The following were the operations officially approved by the United Forces: the attack on the airfields; a widespread sabotage attack in the south; the blowing up of trains on the three main lines of the country; the F.F.I. (Stern Gang) attack on the railway workshops at Haifa; and our attack on the King David Hotel. But there were two more operations carried out during that period by the "dissidents" which were approved only "unofficially" by the Haganah. One was the attack on the Jerusalem Prison carried out by our Assault Force and the F.F.I. and aimed at freeingcaptive members of both organizations.(10)

The cooperation between the Hagana, the Irgun and the Stern Gang in committing terrorist crimes was confirmed by evidence collected by the Palestine Government in the "Statement of Information Relating to Acts of Violence."(11)

Begin, who masterminded and carried out the attack on the King David Hotel, admitted that the massacre was coordinated with, and carried out under instructions of, the Hagana:

In the Spring of 1946 we submitted our plan for the first time to the Command of the Resistance Movement. I informed Sneh and Galili that we would undertake to penetrate the Government wing of the King David Hotel and to carry out an extensive sabotage operation.(12)

Begin confirmed that the Hagana ordered the operation against the King David Hotel. He stated:

On the 1st July, 1946, two days after Barker's attack on the Jewish Agency, we received a letter from the Hagana Command which ran as follows: "Shalom! You are to carry out as soon as possible the Chick and the house of 'Your slave-and-redeemer.' Inform us of the date. Preferably simultaneously. Do not publish the identity of the body carrying out the operation - neither directly nor by implication."(13)

The Hagana wanted to give only 15 minutes between the introduction of the explosives into the building of the King David Hotel and the explosion itself, but the Irgun wanted to give 45 minutes. Finally, it was agreed by a compromise on half an hour.(14) A wing of the King David Hotel was blown up on July 22, 1946, and 91 British, Arab and Jewish men and women were killed: 46 were wounded, many with permanent disabilities.

The Irgun Z'vai Leumi and the Stern Gang captured the village of Deir Yassin and committed the notorious Deir Yassin massacre on the 9-10 April, 1948. Menahem Begin confirmed that Deir Yassin was captured with the knowledge of the Hagana and with the approval of its commander.(15) Begin glorified the massacre of Deir Yassin and its benefits for Zionist goals. He stated:

Out of evil, however, good came. This Arab propaganda spread a legend of terror amongst Arabs and Arab troops, who were seized with panic at the mention of Irgun soldiers. The legend was worth half a dozen battalions to the forces of Israel.(16)

Menahem Begin bragged in his book that he was considered "Terrorist Number One."(17) Yitzhak Sharnir of the Stern Gang was considered "Terrorist Number Two."

The Zionist terrorists were the first to commit political assassinations in the Middle East. The Stern Gang assassinated the British resident minister Lord Walter Moyne in Cairo on November 6, 1944. Yitzhak Shamir, the self-confessed terrorist, a member of the Irgun Z'vai Leumi and later on a member and leader of the Stern Gang, was one of the terrorists who planned the assassination.(18)

The Stern Gang, under Shamir's leadership, also planned and executed the assassination of Count Folke Bernadotte, the United Nations Mediator on September 17, 1948, because he made suggestions to vary the partition plan of Palestine. John Kifner reported in the New York Times that two Israeli terrorists, Yehoshua Zetler and Meshulam Markover, had told Israeli television that they and two other members of the Stern Gang had on September 17, 1948, assassinated the Swedish United Nations Mediator, Count Folke Bernadotte and his aide, Colonel Andre Serot.I9 Shamir's role in the assassination of Count Bernadotte was described in Dan Kurzman's book, Genesis 1948:

On the muggy afternoon of Friday, September 10, a car spedfrom Jerusalem toTel Aviv carrying two men on afateful mission. Yehoshua Zetler was driving Israel Sheib to a conference with Nathan Friedman-Yellin and Yitshak Yizernitzky (Shamir), the two other members of the Stern Group's Central Committee. And Sheib was determined to leave the meeting with unanimous agreement on a "solution" to the Bernadotte threat - a solution that he had had in mind ever since the Stemist demonstration against the Mediator a month before.

As the car halted before a rundown apartment building on Ben Yehuda Street in Tel Aviv, Sheib told Zetler to wait for word from him. Then he climbed the stairs to Friedman- Yellin's apartment, where his two colleagues were waiting for him. In the simply furnished living room, the three men began to discuss the expected new Bernadotte Plan.

"If the world listens to Bernadotte and pressures our weakling government into making compromises, we will have lost our State," Sheib said. "We can't let this happen. We must show the world that it is just as futile for the United Nations to interfere in our affairs as it was for the British. Demonstrations are not enough."

Yizemitzky agreed. His view had always been, as he had explained to Stern members, that "a man who goes forth to kill another whom he does not know must believe one thing only - that by his act he will change the course of history."

The three men (according to Sheib and Yizemitzky) then discussed Count Bernadotte in the light of this philosophy. And as they exchanged ideas over wine and fruit, it seemed that the clock had been set back four years -to that day in Spring, 1944, when the same three men had met in another dingy room to consider assassinating Sir Harold MacMichael, theBritish High Commissioner in Palestine, andLordMoyne, the British Minister of State in the Middle East.

Within months, MacMichael had been wounded in an assassination attempt, and Lord Moyne murdered ...

After a long discussion (as Sheib and Yizemitzky relate it) the three men agreed to order Bernadotte's assassination.(20)


The Zionist leaders were the first terrorists who established the practice of hostage taking in the Middle East. The following are examples:

On June 18, 1946, Jewish terrorists kidnapped five British officers from the Officers Club in Tel Aviv. They were Capt. Spencer, Capt. Taylor, Capt. Warburton, Capt. Rea and F/Lt. Russell. On the same day, they kidnapped Major Chadwick.(21)

Major Chadwick escaped from his kidnappers on June 19, 1946. Capt. Rea and F/Lt. Russell were released by their Jewish captors on June 22, 1946, after spending the interim period bound, shackled and closely guarded by the terrorists in a cellar somewhere in Tel Aviv. F/Lt. Russell was thrown inside a large crate on the lorry where he found Capt. Rea who was gagged with adhesive tape and bleeding from a head wound. The two British hostages were placed later on in a cellar, guarded by four armed Jews; the officers had their hands tied and feet bound. Chains were placed on their feet and wrists. They were released on June 22, 1946.(22)

The Zionist leaders were the first terrorists in the Middle East who hanged hostages. On July 12, 1947 two British non-commissioned officers were abducted in Nathanya by a party of armed Jews. On July 15, 1947, the British Colonial Secretary made a statement about the two British non-commissioned officers who were kidnapped, taken hostage and then hanged by the Jewish terrorists. He stated:

It is with deep regret that I confirm the reports which have been current during the past 24 hours that the two British sergeants, Paice and Martin, abducted at Nathanya on 12th July, have been murdered by Jewish terrorists. I received today the following telegram from the High Commissioner for Palestine: "Most deeply regret to inform you that the two bodies were found at 9 o'clock this morning in an eucalyptus grove at Umm Uleiga, near Beit Lid. They were hanging from two trees. Notices were pinned to the bodies saying that the men had been hanged by the National Military Organization as British spies. The first body was cut down by an Army captain, and as he bent over it a small bomb exploded, injuring him in the face. The surrounding area was found to have been mined."(23)

This ingenious method of terrorism was the product of the wicked minds of Menahem Begin and Yitzhak Shamir. It was Begin in consultation with Shamir and the Hagana leadership who gave the order to hang the two British sergeants.(24)

On December 29, 1946, British Army Major Brett was kidnapped in the Hotel Metropole in Nathanya by a party of armed Jews. He was flogged with 18 strokes and subsequently released. The same evening, two British Staff Sergeants, Wright and Ventham, were abducted by aparty of armed Jews at the Arrnen Hotel in Tel Aviv and taken to the Zoological Gardens. Each was stripped naked and flogged with 18 strokes of the lash. On the same evening, five armed Jews entered the Cafe Tirzah at Rishonlezion and abducted a British Staff Sergeant who was taken away and flogged. He suffered severe bruises and abrasions and was admitted to the hospital for treatment.(25) Also on December 29, 1946, aBritish soldier, Private Gillam, was kidnapped from a cafe in Richon, and he too was flogged.(26)

The Hagana did not hesitate to kill hundreds of Jews to protest British policy in preventing illegal immigration to Palestine. The ship Patria arrived at Haifa in November 1947 with 1,700 illegal Jewish immigrants aboard. The Palestine Government decided to send the ship to the Mauritius Islands. On November 25, 1947, Jewish terrorists placed a bomb in the ship to prevent it from sailing. As a result, two hundred and fifty-two Jews were killed and many were injured. Menahem Begin confirmed that "the British authorities noted the fact that this was not an Irgun Z'vai Leumi operation; it was Haganah who had placed the bomb."(27)


The Jewish terrorists in Palestine under the command of Menahem Begin and Yitzhak Shamir invented a new method of international terrorism which had no precedent in history, namely sending parcel-post bombs and letter bombs to British officials in London. The first parcel bomb was sent on September 3, 1947. Yitzhak Shamir was the mastermind behind this barbaric method. It was addressed to a high official of British Military Intelligence whom the Zionist terrorist organizations suspected of collecting damaging information about them. i he parcel exploded in a post office in Howick Place, Victoria Street, London, seriously injuring two postrnen.(289

On May 3, 1948, a parcel bomb was addressed to Roy Farran in London. Farran was a member of the British Anti- Terrorist Squad in Palestine who returned to England. The parcel was opened by Rex Farran, his 25-year-old younger brother. Many of his organs were blown to pieces, and he died instantly.(29)

It was established that the Stern Gang was responsible for this crime. Yitzhak Shamir was one of the triumvirate leadership of the Stern Gang.

The Stern Gang under the leadership of Yitzhak Shamir intensified its campaign of sending letter bombs to British officials. Between 4 and 6 June, 1947,20 letter bombs were sent. The first shipments of eight letter bombs arrived in London on June 4, 1947. One was addressed to Sir Stafford Cripps, Minister of the Board of Trade, another to Mr. John Strachy, Minister of Food, neither of whom had any connection with the Palestine question. Both letters were intercepted by Scotland Yard and the bombs were defused.(30)

Three more letter bombs were intercepted by Scotland Yard on June 5, 1947. One was addressed to the Foreign Secretary, Ernest Bevin, who was abhorred by the Zionists for his balanced and fair stand on the Palestine question. Letter bombs were also addressed to Anthony Eden, former Foreign Secretary, and Arthur Greenwood, Minister without Portfolio.(31)

The following are examples of the barbaric methods of terrorism committed by the Jewish terrorist organizations from 1939-1945:

(a) Placing bombs in Arab markets and cafes, killing many civilians, mostly women and children.

(b) Placing landmines and exploding them by remote control.

(c) Blowing up of buildings and police stations.

(d) Placing bombs in cinemas where many people were killed or injured.

(e) Placing bombs in railway stations, markets and govemment offices and exploding them, killing and injuring many innocent people.

(f) Placing bombs in trucks and cars filled with explosives near buildings and exploding them, thereby killing and injuring many innocent people.

(g) Throwing bombs into passing cars and into Arab crowds, killing and injuring many civilians.

(h) Blowing up of Arab houses and hotels, killing hundreds of men, women and children.

Details of the Zionist terrorist crimes in Palestine from 1939-1948 are set out in Chapters 4, 5, 6 and 7 of this encyclopedia. The authoritative descriptions of these crimes were obtained from the Foreign Office files, Colonial Office files and War Office files from the Public Record Office, Kew Gardens, Surrey England. The writer personally selected these files which were photocopied. Each incident recorded in these four chapters are verbatim records. They were taken from reports sent from the High Commissioner for Palestine to the Colonial Secretary in London and from the Officer Commander of British forces in Palestine to the Secretary of War in London. Unfortunately, not all documents about Jewish terrorism in the Colonial Office, War Office and Foreign Office files have been declassified. It was noted in the record: "Retained by the Department." The writer spoke with the Director of the Public Record Office regarding examining these files and he told him, "They will be classified for the next seventy five years."

In 1948 the Zionist leaders started to execute their premeditated plan to expel the Palestinians from Palestine and to usurp their homes, lands and all their worldly possessions. In implementing this plan they committed the following war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide as set out in Chapters 9 to 14 of this encyclopedia:

1. They committed hundreds of massacres throughout Palestine.

2. They erased 492 Arab small towns and villages and Bedouin localities from the map of Palestine and converted them into Jewish settlements.

3. They usurped Arab houses and apartments in twelve large towns and cities for settling Jews.

4. They committed looting, pillage, plunder and spoliation of the personal and real properties of Palestinians in twelve large towns and cities and 526 small towns and villages.

5. They destroyed, desecrated and usurped Muslim Holy Places in Palestine and violated the religious rights of Muslims.

6. They destroyed and desecrated Christian Holy Places in Palestine and violated the religious rights of Christians.

In 1967 Zionist leaders committed a war of aggression against neighboring Arab countries, occupying the West Bank and Gaza, namely the remaining 20% of Palestine. From 1967 to 1989 they committed war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide against the Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza and neighboring Arab countries as set forth in Chapters 16-33 of this encyclopedia:

1. Murder, massacres, systematic terrorism, kidnapping and other war crimes and crimes against humanity committed by the Israelis in the West Bank and Gaza and neighboring Arab countries.

2. Looting, plunder, pillage and spoliation and other war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide committed in the Gaza Strip.

3. Plunder and usurpation of Palestinian lands, natural and water resources and the establishment of illegal Jewish settlements in the West Bank and Gaza Strip.

4. Willful destruction of the Palestinian economy in the West Bank and Gaza Strip.

5. Demolition and sealing of Palestinian homes.

6. Collective punishment, curfews, checkpoints, mass round-ups and closures.

7. Establishing concentration camps and political prisons.

8. Torture and inhuman treatment of Palestinian and Lebanese prisoners.

9. Torture and inhuman treatment of Palestinian women.

10. Illegal administrative detention of Palestinians.

11. Illegal town arrest orders of Palestinian families.

12. Inhuman separation of Palestinian families.

13. Jewish settler terrorism against Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza.

14. Brutal measures, including murder, beating and use of toxic gas to suppress the Intifada.

15. War crimes in Lebanon in the Zionist wars of aggression of 1978 and 1982.

16. Wanton bombing of Palestinian refugee camps in Jordan and Lebanon.

17. Mossad terrorism, including murder and kidnapping, against Palestinians and others in Europe and the Middle East.

18. Piracy and terrorism at sea against unarmed vessels.


In order to cover up their terrorism, war crimes and crimes against humanity committed against the Palestinians from 1939 to 1948 and from 1948 to the present, Israeli leaders in occupied Palestine and their vociferous lobbyists in the United States managed to delude President Ronald Reagan, Secretary of State George P. Shultz and a majority of Congressional leaders into believing that international "terrorism" is the root of all evil. They whipped up a frenzy both in the American Administration and Congress on the subject of terrorism, intentionally branding Palestinians, Arabs and Muslims as terrorists. They succeeded in convincing both the United States Administration and Congress that the Palestine Liberation Organization is a terrorist organization and should not be a party to any peace process, thereby perpetuating an agreement made between Henry Kissinger and Y itzhak Rabin in 1975 and fulfilling Israel's determination to sabotage and frustrate the peace process. They know that without the P.L.O. no peaceful settlement to the Palestine problem can be achieved. It is a mockery to read in American newspapers that Israeli leaders such as Yitzhak Shamir, Shimon Peres, Yitzhak Rabin and Ariel Sharon met with President Reagan, and that thereafter the White House issued a Press Release Encyclopedia of the Palestine Problem stating that President Reagan and Mr. Peres or Mr. Shamir "discussed the evil scourge of terrorism which has claimed so many Israeli, American and Arab victims and brought tragedy to so many others. We agreed that terrorism must not blunt our efforts to achieve peace in the Middle East."(32)

President Reagan proclaimed, "Terrorists and those who support them, must and will, be held to account,"(33) yet President Reagan knowingly, or unknowingly, ignored the fact that his Israeli "strategic allies" were themselves master terrorists and war criminals and that his Administration was an accessory to Israeli crimes because it aided and abetted the Israelis in the commission of these crimes by giving them billions of dollars and large quantities of the most sophisticated weapons and by politically supporting them in the United Nations. George P. Shultz, the former United States Secretary of State, made himself a Zionist tool and became a Zionist champion for his steadfast campaign against terrorism, despite the obvious contradictions in his position.

Joseph C. Harsch, a highly respected American journalist, wrote an article in the Christian Science Monitor under the title "Preferential Treatment for Israel?" in which a few of these contradictions are spelled out:

The Department of State in Washington has denied an entry visa to Yasser Arafat, chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), on the ground that he "knows of, condones, and lends support" to acts of terrorism and "he therefore is an accessory to such terrorism."

If this logic were to be applied universally, the Prime Minister of Israel would be refused a visa to enter the United States. Yitzhak Shamir was originally a member of a Jewish terrorist group called the Irgun, which was headed by former Prime Minister Menachem Begin. Mr. Shamir later moved over to the even more radical Stern gang.

Whether Mr. Arafat ever specifically sanctioned an act of terrorism against unarmed civilians is disputed. Israel, and the US government, assume he has. PLO spokesmen say that terrorist acts committed by Palestinians or their friends and sympathizers among other Arab communities have been done by fanatical individuals or groups over which Arafat has no control.

That Shamir and Begin have been leaders of terrorist bands that committed many atrocities is beyond question. Shamir himself has defended the various assassinations committed by the Irgun and Stern gangs on the ground that "it was the only way we could operate, because we were so small. So it was more efficient and more moral to go to selected targets." The selected targets in those early days of the founding of the state of Israel included Lord Moyne, British resident minister in Cairo in 1944, and the Swedish Count, Folke Bernadotte, on Sept. 17, 1948. Not all Begin and Shamir targets were so precise. The first act of terrorism in the long Arab-Israeli wars, which involved many victims, was the bombing of the King David Hotel in Jerusalem on July 2, 1946. Many women were among the 91 people killed.

On April 9, 1948, a combined force of Irgun and Stern gangs committed "a particularly brutal massacre of some 250 Arab residents (of the village of Deir Yassin), many of them women and children," according to Evan M. Wilson, author of Decisions on Palestine. Accounts by Red Cross and United Nations observers who visited the scene said that the houses were first set on fire and then the residents were shot down as they came out to escape the flames.

In a book titled Taking Sides, published by William Morrow and Co., Inc., author Stephen Green tells of the "Lavon Affair," which shook more than one Israeli Cabinet. Theaffair began in June 1954, with the planting of a ring of spies ("moles") in Cairo, ordering it to begin sabotage operations against selected Egyptian, British and American targets. The Alexandria post office was firebombed on July 2. On July 14, the US Information Agency offices in Cairo and Alexandria were damaged by fire started by phosphorus incendiary devices, as was a British-owned theater.

Members of the spy ring were caught, and they confessed. They had been planted by Modiin, the Israeli military intelligence organization. The purpose, presumably, was to sabotage Egyptian relations with the US and Britain. Various commissions of inquiry into the affair conducted in Israel were never able to decide whether or not Israeli Defense Minister Pinchas Lavon authorized the operation.

On Oct. 14-15.1953, an Israeli force attacked the unarmed Arab village of Kibya, in the demilitarized zone, killing 53 civilians. The details were so gruesome that the US joined in a UN condemnation of the Israeli action and, for the first and only time, suspended US aid to Israel in reprisal.

Israeli armed forces invaded Lebanon on June 6, 1982. Arab casualties vastly outnumbered Israeli casualties. During the invasion, there were brutal massacres of Arabs at Sabra and Shatilacamps for which the Israeli High Court heldIsraeli military officers responsible.

Arafat may well have sanctioned one or more acts of individual terrorism. But so have the leaders of Israel, who are always welcome in Washington. Arafat wanted to come to the US to make a speech at the UN. He has just modified his bargaining position to include implicit recognition of Israel. Prospects of a new peace initiative are regarded as encouraging. Denying him the visa may sabotage the new peace effort.(34)


On questions relating to the Middle East, eighty percent of the U.S. Congress is controlled by the Zionist lobby in Washington comprised of AIPAC (American-Israel Public Affairs Committee) and the Presidents' Conference (Conference of Presidents of Major Jewish American Organizations). When these organizations decided that the offices of the Palestine Liberation Organization in Washington and the PLO Observer Mission to the United Nations must be closed, members of Congress competed to excel each other in showing obedience and loyalty to the Zionist lobby. Between April and June 1987 five bills were introduced that would close the PLO offices or restrict the activities of PLO personnel in the United States. The bills were referred to Committee, but no hearings were held, and none of the bills was reported out of the Committee. The consolidated bill was known as the Anti-Terrorism Act. On May 14, 1987, Senator Charles Grassley (R-Iowa) introduced the Anti-Terrorism Act as Amendment Number 940 to the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Year 1988, and the amendment was agreed to by a voice vote.(35)

Kenneth R. Thomas, Legislative Attorney, American Law Division, of the Congressional Research Service of the Library of Congress, stated in his report for Congress, the Anti-Terrorism Act of 1987:

Although the House Foreign Relations Authorization Act contained no similar provisions, Representative Burton introduced a motion to instruct the conferees on the Foreign Relations Authorization Act to accept the language of the Anti-Terrorism Act, which was agreed to by the House.(36)

The Anti-Terrorism Act was agreed upon by the conferees, and its provisions were set forth without comment in the conference report. The Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Years 1988 and 1989, containing the Anti-Terrorism Act, was signed by President Reagan on December 22, 1987.(37)

This proves how the Zionist lobby manipulated the U.S. Congress into adopting, in an abnormal legislative procedure, without debate or discussion of any kind, an act against the Palestine Liberation Organization which had international ramifications and drew worldwide condemnation, at the very time the United States Congress was rewarding Israel with three billion dollars of financial and military aid.

The PLO offices in Washington, D.C. were closed by the order of the State Department, but the offices of the PLO UN Observer Mission in New York were not closed. The United Nations General Assembly obtained the Advisory Opinion of the International Court of Justice that it would be a violation of the Headquarters Agreement between the United Nations and the United States. At the same time, the United States District Court of New York ruled "that the language of the Headquarters Agreement and long-standing practice under the Agreement obligated the United States to 'refrain from impairing the function' of the PLO Observer Mission Office in New York."(38) This decision by U.S. District Court Judge Edmund L. Palmieri was not appealed by the United States Administration.


The terrorist acts by the Zionists were thoroughly discussed in the House of Commons in London. Members of Parliament frequently asked questions about Zionist terrorist acts which were answered by responsible British Cabinet Ministers. Parliamentary debates record in detail Zionist terrorist activities in Palestine and their condemnations of them. On November 17, 1944 Prime Minister Winston Churchill described the Zionist terrorists as "a new set of gangsters worthy of Nazi Germany."(39)

Following are excerpts from House of Commons debates on the Zionist outrages committed in Palestine:

On February 25, 1944 the question of Jewish terrorists in Palestine was raised in the House of Commons.

Captain Ramsay asked the Secretary of State for the Colonies (1) whether he has any information which he can give the House concerning the recent murder of Inspector Green and Constable Ewer by Jewish terrorists in Palestine; (2) whether he has traced the source of any of the literature or funds now at the disposal of Jewish terrorists.

Mr. Emrys-Evans answered: On the night of the 14th- 15th February in Haifa, British inspector R. D. Green and British constable H. E. Ewer challenged two suspicious characters carrying a parcel, who turned out to be Jews. So far as can be ascertained, while the inspector was examining the parcel, one of the Jews shot him and the constable with a pistol. Both were wounded and fell to the ground, and the Jews ran away. One of them turned back, however, and fired at the policemen as they lay on the ground, and the Jews then made good their escape. The parcel was found to contain Stern Group pamphlets. I very much regret that both of these gallant officers died on the 16th February as the result of this dastardly attack on them while in the execution of their duty.

The Stern Group, to which the assassins apparently belonged, is a secret terrorist organization of Jewish extremists formed in Palestine about the middle of 1940. Soon after the Group was formed, its members entered upon a campaign of organised terrorism primarily with the object of obtaining funds for the furtherance of their so-called political campaign.(40)

On April 5, 1944 the question of the criminal acts by Jewish extremists in Palestine was raised in the House of Commons.

Captain Plugge asked the Secretary of State for the Colonies whether he will make a statement on the terrorist outrages in Palestine and their object.

Colonel Stanley (answered): I regret having to report that since 13th March casualties among police have been nine killed and five wounded or injured. These criminal acts are committed by members of a secret organization of Jewish extremists known as the Stern Group, and members of the Irgun Z'vai Leumi, the military organization of the Revisionists.(41)

On September 26, 1944 the question of terrorist outrages in Palestine was raised in the House of Commons.

Captain Ramsay asked the Secretary of State for the Colonies whether he can give any information concerning the attempt to assassinate Sir Harold MacMichael (the High Commissioner) in Palestine on the afternoon of 8th August; whether any of the terrorists were apprehended; and with what group or groups they are connected.

Colonel Stanley (answered): As regards the first part of the Question, I have nothing to add to the official statements published in the Press. A considerable number of arrests have been made. The primary responsibility for the outrage is attributed to the Stern Group.

Captain Ramsey asked the Secretary of State for the Colonies (1) how many British police and officials have been assassinated since 1st January by Jewish terrorists in Palestine; and whether he will give their names and the amounts of compensation paid to their next-of-kin; (2) how many British police and officials have been wounded since 1st January by Jewish terrorists in Palestine; and whether he will give their names and the amounts of compensation paid to their next-of- kin.

Colonel Stanley (answered): Details of British police and officials killed or wounded between 1st January and 3rd May have already been given in reply to previous questions on the subject. Since the 3rd May Major K. I. Nicholl, Aide-de- Camp to the High Commissioner, and British Sergeant J. H. Smith, were wounded when an attempt was made on the life of the High Commissioner on the 8th August, and British Constable W. J. Turner was slightly wounded in an incident on 22nd August.(42)

On October 11, 1944 the question of terrorist activities in Palestine was raised in the House of Commons.

Mr. Hamilton Kerr asked the Secretary of State for the Colonies whether he has any statement to make regarding recent terrorist outrages in Palestine.

Colonel Stanley (answered): There has unfortunately been a recrudescence of Jewish terrorist activities in Palestine. On the night of 27th September attacks were made on four police stations by members of the Irgun Z'vai Leumi, the military organization of the New Zionist organization. They were planned and executed by a force estimated to have been at least 150 strong and armed with bombs and automatic weapons. There were casualties among Palestinian police and civilians and considerable damage was caused to police buildings .... These attacks, the object of which is to further political aims, seriously impede the war effort of the United Nations and can do nothing but harm to the Jewish cause .... Verbal denunciation is not, in itself, enough. What we want, and what we shall hope to get, is the active collaboration of the whole, of the Jewish population in Palestine.(43)

On November 9, 1944 the previously mentioned assassination of Lord Moyne was discussed in the House of Commons. The Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, Mr. Anthony Eden, stated:

On Tuesday last, my right hon. Friend the Prime Minister undertook to inform the House as soon as fuller details about the assassination of Lord Moyne had been received. It has now been reported from Cairo that the two prisoners have made the following confession:

"We are members of the Fighters for the Freedom of Israel organization and what we have done was done on the instructions of this organisation."

The organisation is that known as the Stern Group.(44)

On November 17, 1944 the Prime Minister Winston Churchill made a statement in the House of Commons on terrorist activities in Palestine in which he said, inter alia, the following:

I have now to make a short statement about Palestine. On Thursday last, my right Don. Friend the Foreign Secretary gave the House a full report of the assassination of Lord Moyne. This shameful crime has shocked the world. It has affected none more strongly than those, like myself, who, in the past, have been consistent friends of the Jews and constant architects of their future. If our dreams of Zionism are to end in the smoke of assassins' pistols andour labours for its future to produce only a new set of gangsters worthy of Nazi Germany, many like myself will have to reconsider the position we have maintained so consistently and so long in the past. If there is to be any hope of a peaceful and successful future for Zionism, these wicked activities must cease, and those responsible for them must be destroyed root and branch. The primary responsibility must, of course, rest with the Palestine authorities under His Majesty's Government. These authorities are already engaged in an active and thorough campaign against the Stern Gang and the larger, but hardly less dangerous, Irgun Z'vai Leumi.(45)

On December 6, 1944 the question of terrorist outrages in Palestine was raised in the House of Commons:

Earl Winterton asked the Secretary of State for the Colonies if he can state the number and give details of the outrages committed in Palestine by terrorists since 1 st January last.

Colonel Stanley (answered): The following is a summary of terrorist outrages in Palestine since 1st January, 1944:

29th January.
Explosions which occurred at the Government Transport Agency Car Park at Jaffa wrecked one lorry and damaged others. A Jew arrested near the scene admitted to being a member of the Irgun. The Irgun openly accepted the responsibility in a letter to the Hebrew Press.

3rd February.
An Arab taxi-driver surprised two Jews tampering with a wall near the entrance to St. George's Cathedral, Jerusalem, and warned a Police patrol who pursued the Jews; the latter opened fire fatally wounding an Arab civilian. The Jews escaped. Subsequent examination of the Cathedral wall indicated preparations to plant an electrically-operated infernal machine in the wall.

12th, 13th February.
Bomb outrages were perpetrated at Jerusalem, Haifa and Tel-Aviv against Immigration Offices causing damage to buildings and to archives at Jerusalem and Tel-Aviv. There were no casualties. The Irgun openly admitted responsibility for the outrages in a letter to the Hebrew Press.

14th, 15th February.
In Haifa two Jews carrying a suspicious parcel were challenged by a British Inspector and British Constable. The Jews opened fire, fatally wounding both Police Officers, and made good their escape. The parcel contained Stern Group literature.

24th February.
A bomb placed in a runway outside the garage of a Deputy Superintendent of Police exploded under his car as he drove out. The car was wrecked, but the officer escaped with superficial injuries. A second bomb planted by the side of the road was exploded as a Police traffic car containing 4 Police Officers was passing. The car was damaged, but the occupants escaped serious injury. A third unexploded bomb was subZionist Terrorism and Crimes in Palestine 1939-1945 sequently found concealed at the side of another road. These outrages were thought to be attributable to the Stern Group.

26th February.
Explosions occurred at the Income Tax Offices at Tel- Aviv and Haifa causing extensive damage to buildings. An unexploded bomb was also found at the Income Tax Office, Jerusalem. There were no casualties.

2nd March.
A British constable saw two men posting pamphlets in a Tel-Aviv street. On approaching them he was shot in the back by a third man. The assailants escaped. Pamphlets were those issued by the Stern Group.

13th March.
A Jewish Constable was murdered at Petah Tikvah.

16th March.
The Police challenged a man in a Tel-Aviv street who drew a pistol and made off. The Police opened fire, whereupon the man threw away his pistol and a package he was carrying. The package contained three sticks of gelignite, a fuse detonator and rivets. The pistol was loaded. The man was captured and subsequently identified as a leading member of the Stern Group who had been wanted by the Police for over three years.

19th March.
The Police saw a suspicious looking character carrying an attache case, standing at a street corner in Tel Aviv. When the man saw that he was being watched he ran away and dashed into a house with the Police in pursuit. He tried to escape on to the roof but, finding the door locked, turned and fired at the Police. They returned fire and killed him. There were no Police casualties. The attache case contained ten rounds of revolver ammunition and Stern Group literature.

23rd March.
At Tel-Aviv, three British police were killed and one slightly wounded in separate incidents in one street. At Haifa bombs were exploded at police headquarters. Three British constables were found dead when extricated from the wreckage, and three injured. At Jerusalem a number of men wearing articles of police uniform entered police headquarters by means of a ladder. They were disturbed by an assistant superintendent of police, who opened fire. The intruders returned fire and killed him. Bombs which the party had brought with them and deposited subsequently exploded causing serious damage but no further casualties. At Jaffa explosives were discovered in an air-raid shelter below police headquarters. The building was evacuated and shortly afterwards explosions occurred damaging the building but causing no casualties.

1st April.
A British inspector, accompanied by a Palestinian police sergeant, acting on information received that a wounded man was lying in ahouse at Haifa, entered the House to find within four Jews, one of whom was wounded. Three men escaped through the window. The wounded Jew threw a hand grenade which fatally wounded the sergeant and slightly wounded the inspector. The Jew subsequently escaped but was afterwards found in a Jewish hospital in a dangerous condition. A search of the house revealed military uniforms, arms, electrical appliances and equipment for the production of Stern Group literature.

5th April.
A mobile police patrol in Tel-Aviv approached a man in order to question him. The man opened fire and wounded a British constable. The assailant, who was wounded, was arrested.

6th April.
Acting on information received a police party surrounded a house in the Yavniel Jewish Colony near Tiberias where wounded men were reported to be hiding. Firing was opened from the house and after exchange of shots two Jews in the house were killed. Both were found to be armed with pistols. There were no police casualties.

9th April.
Three unknown persons passing a British police billet in Northern Tel-Aviv fired shots at two British constables on duty outside the billet, simultaneously throwing a grenade. Two British constables and a Jewish constable were slightly wounded. The assailants made off before assistance arrived.

10th April.
A determined, but unsuccessful, attempt was made on the life of a deputy superintendent of police, who was fired on when driving in Tel-Aviv on the way to divisional police headquarters. The officer, who returned fire, escaped injury. The assailants made off before assistance arrived.

10th May.
A Jewish police constable of the C.I.D. was shot dead by an unknown assailant when leaving his house in Tel-Aviv. The assailant escaped.

17th May.
On the night of the 17th May, three Arabs in a taxi were held up outside Ramallah by a road block consisting of boards studded with nails which punctured the tyres. When the taxi stopped an explosion occurred which blew it off the road. On extricating themselves the Arabs were surrounded by 30 Jews dressed in khaki shorts and shirts who ordered them to proceed on their way. When the Arabs walked away the Jews, who were armed with submachine guns, rifles and pistols, opened fire wounding two Arabs. A police party which turned out on hearing the shots found the taxi and the Arabs, but the assailants had made off. Immediately thereafter eight men dressed in khaki entered the Broadcasting Station at Ramallah overpowering and disarming the guard. After unsuccessfully questioning the operator in Hebrew as to the use of the transmitter and the best way of wrecking the building they fired a number of shots causing damage to apparatus and eventually left the building. There were no casualties.

18th May.
A few hours later, a police ambush patrol on a road in the foothills north-east of Lydda was fired on by the occupants of a truck approaching from the Lydda direction. The patrol returned the fire, some of their bullets penetrating the windscreen. The vehicle stopped and about six persons alighted and disappeared in the darkness. Shortly afterwards two more trucks coming from the same direction pulled up some distance away and about 18 persons of both sexes got out and ran away. The three trucks were found to contain a small quantity of gelignite and boards studded with long nails. It was later learned that on the 17th May three truck-owners from Petah Tikvah were commissioned for work at a point outside Petah Tikvah. On arrival they were attacked, removed from their trucks and bound; they were released on the morning of the 18th May.

14th July.
An attack was made by terrorists on a building in thecentre of Jerusalem which houses the Jerusalem District Police Headquarters and the District of Jerusalem and Bethlehem Land Registry. The attack began with a number of minor explosions, accompanied by shooting and throwing of hand grenades. Three large explosions took place in successions doing extensive damage to buildings and starting a conflagration. The ground floor was completely gutted. Between 15 and 25 persons took part in the attack, some of them dressed in clothes resembling police uniforms. They used one or more taxis which had been seized from their drivers at the point of the pistol, and besides employing gelignite bombs and hand grenades appear to have been equipped with tommy-guns and automatic pistols. Responsibility for this outrage was afterwards acknowledged in pamphlets distributed by the Irgun. An Arab supernumerary constable was also dangerously wounded. Two British constables were detained in hospital suffering from shock and six other British police received superficial injuries. Jerusalem District Land Registry records were very extensively damaged by fire and from water used in fire brigade operations, and it was found necessary to close the Registry sine die.

8th August.
The High Commissioner was motoring with Lady Mac- Michael to a farewell function when the car, under police escort, was ambushed just outside Jerusalem on the Jerusalem-Jaffa road and fire was opened with tommy-guns from the side of the road. The High Commissioner was slightly wounded in the hand and thigh and his A.D.C. was shot through the lung and seriously hurt. The police driver was also seriously wounded. The police subsequently discovered at the spot a quantity of hand grenades, two submachine guns, a sack containing bombs capable of being exploded electrically from a distance, and miscellaneous ammunition, explosives and equipment. Several men were seen running from the engagement and entering the Jewish Settlement of Givat Shaul; this was later confirmed by police dogs. Preparations at the scene of the crime had, apparently, been made under cover of bogus survey operations. The police cordoned the Settlement immediately, but noone there volunteered or gave any useful information.

22nd August.
The Jaffa Divisional Police Headquarters and two police stations on the Jaffa-Tel-Aviv border were attacked by armed Jews. The attackers, in three separate parties each numbering about a dozen men, were armed with home-made bombs, grenades and submachine guns, and one party arrived and left in a truck. The way was prepared for the attack by mining of the roads and rail crossings in the neighbourhood and by laying boobytraps. A large ambush party lay near the Divisional Headquarters. Where road junctions were mined posters had been left bearing warnings by the Irgun. The attackers were driven off by small arms fire, except at one police station where the Palestinian personnel on guard were out-numbered. Fourteen rifles were taken from this station. Minor damage was done to the buildings by bombs. Casualties were one British constable wounded, one Arab constable and one Jewish temporary additional constable seriously injured. Six suspects were arrested, one of whom was wounded by police fire and was seen to throw away a bomb.

27th September.
Attacks were made on four police stations by members of the Irgun. They were planned and executed by a force estimated to have beenat least 150 strong, armed with bombs and automatic weapons. There were casualties among police and civilians, and considerable damage was caused to police buildings. Casualties were inflicted on the terrorists, and two men were arrested, one of whom had been wounded. Quantities of ammunition, two bombs and Irgun flags were seized.

29th September.
A senior British police officer of C.I.D. was assassinated while walking to his office in Jerusalem. The assailants escaped.

5th, 6th October.
The Tel-Aviv offices and stores of the Department of Light Industries were raided by 50 persons, some of whom were armed, and textiles valued at 100,000 Pounds Sterling were removed. The raiders announced themselves as being members of the Irgun.(46)

On November 16, 1945 the question of rioting in Tel-Aviv by Jews was raised in the House of Commons. Earl Winterton asked:

Mr. Deputy-Speaker, with your permission, and at the suggestion of the right hon. Gentleman the Secretary of State for the Colonies, I desire to ask the Under-Secretary a question of which I have given him Private Notice: whether he has any further information to give on the recent rioting in Tel Aviv. The Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies (Mr. Creech Jones): On the evening of the 14th November, rioting occurred in Tel-Aviv, following mass meetings by Jews in protestation against the Government statement of policy. The offices of the District Administration, the Control of Light Industries and the Income Tax Department were attacked and set on fire. Damage was extensive. An attack on the Post Office was frustrated by police and military action. As six baton charges were insufficient to disperse the crowd, soldiers who had been brought up to reinforce the police fired ten rounds. The crowd withdrew. Other crowds stoned the police and soldiers. After verbal warning and after three soldiers had been injured, four rounds were fired with the desired effect ... Yesterday the curfew imposed on Tel-Aviv was broken by a large number of rioters. Cars were overturned, including a military lorry which was burned out, a section of the railway line was torn up, a branch post office and a number of shops were wrecked and looted. A branchof Barclays Bank was also wrecked but the rioters failed to force the safes. During these incidents, troops were compelled to open fire on threatening crowds after police had been unable to disperse them with baton charges. On two occasions home-made grenades were thrown at troops. Thirty arrests were made for breaking curfew, and five adults and five juveniles were arrested for rioting.(47)

A PROPOSED ALLIANCE BETWEEN THE STERN GANG AND NAZI GERMANY On January 1 1, 194 1, Avraham Stern proposed a formal military pact between the National Military Organization (NMO), of which Yitzhak Shamir, the current Prime Minister of Israel, was a prominent leader, and the Nazi Third Reich. This proposal became known as the Ankara document, having been discovered after the war in the files of the German Embassy in Turkey. It stated the following:

The evacuation of the Jewish masses from Europe is a precondition for solving the Jewish question; but this can only be made possible and complete through the settlement of these masses in the home of the Jewish people, Palestine, and through the establishment of a Jewish state in its historical boundaries ....

The NMO, which is well-acquainted with the goodwill of the German Reich government and its authorities towards Zionist activity inside Germany and towards Zionist emigration plans, is of the opinion that:

1. Common interests could exist between the establishment of a New Order in Europe in conformity with the German concept, and the true national aspirations of the Jewish people as they are embodied by the NMO.

2. Cooperation between the new Germany and renewed folkish-national Hebraium would be possible and

3. The establishment of the historical Jewish state on a national and totalitarian basis, and bound by a treaty with the German Reich, would be in the interest of a maintained and strengthened future German position in the Near East.

Proceeding from these considerations, the NMO in Palestine, under the condition that the above-mentioned national aspirations of the Israeli freedom movement are recognized on the side of the German Reich, offers to actively take part in the war on Germany's side.(48)


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Encyclopedia of the Palestine Problem
By Issa Nakhleh

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