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Encyclopedia of the Palestine Problem

CHAPTER FIVE ZIONIST TERRORISM AND CRIMES IN PALESTINE 1946

In 1946 the Zionist terrorist organizations intensified their terrorist campaign. The military arm of the Jewish Agency - the Hagana and the Palmach - had about 46,000 militarytrained men. The Jewish settlement police numbered about 16,000. It was estimated that the Irgun Z'vai Leumi had 3,000 to 5,000 members and the Stern group had 200 to 300 members. Although the Hagana and the Palmach pretended that they were not taking part in terrorist acts, in fact they cooperated with the Irgun Z'vai Leumi and the Stern Gang in committing these acts of terrorism. In July 1946, the British Government published a Statement of Information Relating to Acts of Violence that proves the connection between the Jewish Agency and the other Zionist organizations.(1)

The information which was in the possession of His Majesty's Government when they undertook their recent action in Palestine led them to draw the following conclusions:-

(1) That the Hagana and its associated force the Palmach (working under the political control of prominent members of the Jewish Agency) have been engaging in carefully planned movements of sabotage and violence under the guise of "the Jewish Resistance Movement";

(2) that the Irgun Z'vai Leumi and the Stern Group have worked since last Autumn in cooperation with the Hagana High Command on certain of these operations; and

(3) that the broadcasting station "Kol Israel," which claims to be "the Voice of the Resistance Movement" and which was working under the general direction of the Jewish Agency has been supporting these organisations.

The evidence on which these conclusions are based is derived in the main from three sources:

(i) Information which has been obtained showing that between the 23rd September, 1945, and the 3rd November, 1945, seven telegrams passed between London and Jerusalem, and a further telegram on 12th May, 1946. Copies of these have been interpreted and here are set out;

(ii) various broadcasts by "Kol Israel" between 3 1 st October, 1945, and the 23rd June, 1946, referring to specific acts of violence and sabotage; and

(iii) information on various dates derived from the pamphlet Hamaas (the publication of the Stern Group), from Herut (the publication of the Irgun Z'vai Leumi) and from Eshnav (the publication of "the Jewish Resistance Movement"), Examples from these pamphlets are set out in this Paper.

This evidence relates to the three widespread sabotage operations of the 3 1 st October/I st November, 1945; 20th- 25th February, 1946, and 16th-18th June, 1946. All three para-military organisations participated in these actions which not only caused very serious destruction but also loss of life.

I. ATTACK ON RAILWAYS POLICE LAUNCHES AND HAIFA REFINERY 31 OCTOBER-1 NOVEMBER, 1945


Note: The Palmach carried out widespread attacks on the Palestinian Railway system. The line was blown up in 153 places in all, completely disrupting it. Other charges, though laid, did not explode. Three police launches were destroyed by explosives, two at Haifa and one at Jaffa. The same night, the Irgun Z'vai Leumi attacked Lydda Station and Yards causing damage to three locomotives, the destruction of one signal box, and the burning of an engine shed. Several casualties were inflicted, including the death of one British soldier. A further attempt was made on the same night by the Stern Group to blow up the Oil Refinery at Haifa.

This incident was carefully planned in advance as part of a deliberate policy. It was intended as a warning to His Majesty's Government of the consequences that would follow if they did not comply with the wishes of the Yishuv (the Jewish community in Palestine). The Jewish Agency Executive was not prepared to wait for a declaration of Government policy, but decided to cause "one serious incident" in order to influence that policy. These facts can plainly be seen from the following telegrams.

Telegram No. I

To London from Sneh in Jerusalem - 23rd September, 1945.

"It is suggested that we do not wait for the official announcement but call upon all Jewry to warn the authorities and to raise the morale of the Yishuv. If you agree ask Zeev Sharif for statistical material about the absorptive capacity and if you do not agree tell him that this material is not yet required. It has also been suggested that we cause one serious incident. We would then publish a declaration to the effect that it is only a warning and an indication of much more serious incidents that would threaten the safety of all British interests in the country, should the Government decide against us. Wire your views with the reference as before but referring to statistical material about immigration during the war years. The Stern Group have expressed their willingness to join us completely on the basis of our programme of activity. This time the intention seems serious. If there is such a union we may assume that we can prevent independent action even by the IZL. Wire your views on the question of the union referring to statistical material about Jewish recruitment to the Army. Sneh."

N.B. Sneh is Security member of the Jewish Agency Executive. IZL is the Irgun Z'vai Leumi.


That the Agency Executive agreed to the above action is clearly shown in the following telegrams:

Telegram No. 2.

To London from Bernard Joseph in Jerusalem - 10th October, 1945.

"Eliezer Kaplan basing himself on a word from Hayyim via Nwbw says that we should undertake nothing before you give us instructions to do. He is opposed to any real action on our part until we hear from you.

Other members, however, are of the opinion that it is necessary to back your political effort with activities which do not bear the character of a general conflict.

It is essential that we should know at once whether such actions are likely to be useful or detrimental to your struggle.

Should you be opposed to any action whatever, wire that we should wait for the arrival of Wisly.

Should you agree to isolated actions, wire that you agree to sending a deputation to the dominions.

If Hayyim meant us only avoid a general conflict not isolated cases, send greetings to Chill for the birth of his daughter."

N.B. Bernard Joseph is legal adviser to the Jewish Agency and a member of its Executive. He acts in Shertok's absence as Head of the Political Department. Eliezer Kaplan is Head of the Agency's Financial Department and a member of its Executive.


Telegram No. 3.

From Moshe Shertok in London to Bernard Joseph in Jerusalem. 12th October, 1945.

"David will not leave before fortnight. Meanwhile probably revisit Paris. Regarding Dobkin written. David himself favoured delegate dominions. Please congratulate Chill on birth of daughter. Signed Shertok."

N.B. (1) Moshe Shertok is Head of the Agency's Political Department and a member of the Executive

(2) A reference to telegram No. 2 will show that the phrases about "delegate dominions" and "greetings to Chill" meant that it was desired, whilst avoiding a general conflict, to indulge in isolated actions.


Telegram No. 4.

To London from Jerusalem. 2nd November, 1945.


"The Executive refuses to give authority to the political department to act within the limits of Ben Gurion's instructions. Gsbr argues that he will oppose this as soon as Ben Gurion and Shertok return. I declared that I will act according to the instructions which I have received until an authoritative message is received which cancels Ben Gurion's instructions. They did not dare to cancel the instructions but insisted that we inform the Executive in advance of each action and that they should have the right of veto. We received agreement for the police boats and for the railway. All activities may thus be spoiled owing to pressure from the party on Bernard Joseph and on Eliahu."

N.B. David Ben Gurion is Chairman of the Jewish Agency Executive.

For the operations of the 31st October to 1st November the Agency sought and obtained the cooperation of the "dissident organisations."


Telegram No. 5.

To London from Jerusalem. 1st November, 1945.

"We have come to a working arrangement with the dissident organisationsaccording to which weshallassign certain tasks to them under our command. They will act only according to our plan. Sneh, Shaul Meiroff, Kn'ny and Bernard Joseph consider such an agreement as most desirable, but it is not being put into effect because the Party is delaying it. Some of them are opposed to any sort of activity and especially to any agreement with the dissidents. Information on the operation follows:

The following activities were carried out on Wednesday night. Two boats were sunk in the Haifa harbour and a third at Jaffa. The boats had been used to chase immigrants. Railway lines were blown up in 50 centres, in all 500 explosions. Railway traffic was stopped from the Syrian frontier to Gaza, from Haifa to Samakh, from Lydda to Jerusalem. In all the activities no one was hurt, stopped or arrested.

The same night the IZL attacked the Lydda station causing serious damage and some casualties. During the same night the Stern Group caused serious sabotage at the refineries at Haifa and one man was killed. The dissidents hadpreviously informed us of this and we did not object to Lydda but were opposed to the refinery job. Had the agreement come into effect we could have avoided victims at Lydda and prevented the refinery operation. I regard the fact that the Party and the Executive are withholding their approval as a crime.

The activities have made a great impression in the country. The authorities are bewildered and have proclaimed a curfew on the roads at night. They are waiting for instructions from London. We are apprehensive of a general attack against the Hagana. We have taken the necessary security measures and are prepared for sacrifices. Confirm by telegram to Ada enquiries about the health of her children."

Hamaas, the publication of the Stern Group in referring to the above operation, stated:

"The events of 1st November have given a striking expression of the firm resolution of the Jews to fight for the freedom of their homeland. The scope of the attack has proved that the Jews are capable of acting under the most difficult conditions.

"However, the most significant achievement on that night was that for the first time the attack was coordinated and concentrated. The Jewish Resistance Movement has embraced all the Jewish resistance forces with a view to their being guided by a single authority which would control the common fight." (Hamaas Issue No. 2 of November, 1945.)

These operations were widely publicised by the Jewish illegal broadcasting station, Kol Israel, as follows:

"The paralysing of the Railways all over the country through cutting the lines in 242 places serves as a warning to the Government of the White Paper.

The nights of heroism since Athlit (On 10th October the Palmach released over 200 illegal immigrants from Athlit Clearance Camp. A British police tender was ambushed during the subsequent search for the escaped persons and one British policeman and two Palestinians were wounded - ed.) are an expression of our strength and decision. We lament the British, Arab and Jewish victims who fell in the attacks on the railways and ports of Palestine. They are all victims of the White Paper. All our men returned safely with their equipment. None of our men is missing."(2nd November, 1945.)

As proof of the fact that the Kol Israel station was working with the agreement of the Jewish Agency, reference may be made to the following telegrams. (See also telegram No. 8):


Telegram No. 6.


To London from Sneh in Jerusalem. 12th October, 1945.

"With effect from 4/10 the broadcasts of the 'Voice of Israel' have been renewed. Two broadcasts were successful. Eliezer Kaplan and Bernard Joseph were invited to see the High Commissioner this morning.

The agreement for the renewal of the broadcasts and the Athlit undertakings have been obtained with difficulty. In future I shall not enquire but decide in conjunction with Shaul Meiroff and Kn'ny."


Telegram No. 7.

To London from Jerusalem. 14th October, 1945.

"The Voice of Israel started to function as the broadcasting 1 station of the Jewish Resistance Movement three days before we received your letter and your telegram.

We also have had the same doubts and we voiced them before the broadcasts were started but the expert says that there are no grounds for anxiety from the technical point of view."

N.B. The phrase "grounds for anxiety from the technical point of view" probably refers to apprehension that the station, which is a mobile one, might be located.


II. ATTACKS ON HAIFA RADAR STATION, PALESTINE MOBILE FORCE CAMPS, AND AIRFIELDS - 20-25 FEBRUARY, 1946.

Note: On 20th February, 1946, the Palmach attacked the R.A.F. Station, Haifa, blowing it up and seriously wounding two R.A.F. N.C.0s and inflicting lesser injuries on six others.

Two days later the Palmach carried out coordinated attacks on Palestine Mobile Force Camps at Shaffa Amr, Kfar Vitkin and Sarona. At Shaffa Amr serious damage was caused. One police officer suffered head injuries. Three British women and one child suffered from shock.

On 25th February, the Irgun Z'vai Leumi and Stern Group followed this up with attacks on airfields at Lydda, Petah Tikvah, and Qastina, destroying seven aircraft and damaging eight others.

These incidents seem to have been intended as a "second warning," as the "first warning" on the 31st October/lst November, 1945, had been "disregarded." These incidents were described in a Kol Israel broadcast of the 3rd March, 1946.

"This last fortnight has seen a renewed intensity in the struggle of the Jewish people against the forces which aim to throttle them and their natural aspirations for normal nationhood in their National Home.

"The attack on the Radar Station on Mount Camel was aimed at destroying one of the principal agents of the Government in its hunt for Jewish refugees. The sabotage of the airfields (i.e., by Irgun Z'vai Leumi and Stern Group) was the sabotage of a weapon which has been degraded from its glorious fight against the evil forces of Nazism to the dishonourable task of fighting against the victims of Nazism.

"Those three attacks are symptomatic of our struggle. In all cases the onslaught was made against the weapon used by the White Paper in its despicable battle to repudiate its undertaking to the Jewish people and the world, and not against the men who use this weapon. It is not our object to cause the loss of life of any Briton in this country; we have nothing against them because we realise that they are but instruments of a policy, and in many cases unwilling instruments."

In addition to the above broadcast, Herut, the publication of the Irgun Z'vai Leumi, and Eshnav, the pamphlet published in the name of the Resistance Movement, made the following allusions tothese extensive operations:

"Heavy tasks were imposed on all the forces of the nation. The soldiers of the Hagana were ordered to attack the forces in their lairs (i.e. the Palestine Mobile Force). No less difficult was the task imposed on the members of the National Military Organisation (Irgun Z'vai Leumi) who were sent to attack the military airfields at Qastina and the central airfield at Lydda; and on the members of the Fighters for Freedom of Israel (Stern Group) who were ordered to attack the aerodrome at Kfar Sirkin. The importance of this week's events lies in the fact that this was the first time that the military bases of the British rulers were shaken." (Herut, Issue No. 55 of February, 1946.)

"A Big Week.

"The actions of this glorious week have been carried out with the support of the entire, united Jewish youth. This is a political achievement.

'The Palestine Mobile Force has been attacked by the Hagana; at two camps considerable damage has been inflicted. At Sarona the fighters retired after a continuation of the attack had proved useless. Here four of them fell.

"Lydda and Qastina airfields have been attacked by Irgun Z'vai Leumi whilst Lohemei Herut Israel (Fighters for Freedom of Israel) men chose as their aim the airfield at Kfar Sirkin." (Herut, Issue No. 56 of February, 1946.)

"The first warning on 1st November, 1945, by the Jewish Resistance was disregarded, and the whole Yishuv was compelled to carry out a second warning during the last fortnight expressed in the attacks on Palestine Mobile Force Stations and Airfields." (Eshnav, Issue No. 116 of 4th March, 1946.)


III. ATTACKS ON ROAD AND RAIL BRIDGES, RAILWAY WORKSHOPS AND KIDNAPPING OF BRITISH OFFICERS, 16-18 JUNE, 1946

Note: During the evening of 16th June, 1946, Hagana carried out attacks on road and rail bridges on the frontier of Palestine causing damage estimated at 250,000 Pounds. Four road and four rail bridges were destroyed or damaged during the night, and one road bridge across the Jordan was destroyed by a delayed action mine, while attempts were being made to remove the charges. One British officer of the Royal Engineers was killed by the explosion.

The following evening the Stern Group carried out an attack on the Haifa Railway Workshops

On 18th June, 1946, five British officers were kidnapped while lunching at an officers' club in Tel Aviv and a sixth British officer was kidnapped in a main street of Jerusalem. Indication that a further series of incidents might be imminent was given on 12th May, 1946, when Kol Israel broadcast a warning which it considered "desirable" to "lay before HisMajesty's Government." The text of this broadcast was as follows:

"The Jewish Resistance Movement thinks it desirable to publish the warning it intends to lay before His Majesty's Government. Present British policy is executing a dangerous manoeuvre and is based on an erroneous assumption: Britain, in evacuating Syria, Lebanon and Egypt intends to strengthen her military bases in Palestine and is using her responsibility to the Jewish people merely as a means to that end. But this double game will not work. Britain cannot hold both ends of the rope; she cannot exploit the tragic Jewish question for her own benefit as mandatory power, while attempting to wiggle out of the various responsibilities which that mandate confers. so much about coming to fight the Jews in Palestine, and to mark the closing up of these frontiers before Jewish immigrants." From the Zionist point of view, the tepid conclusions of the Commission hear no relation to the political claims of the Jewish people, but even so, in the execution of these proposals, the British Government is displaying a vacillation at once disappointing and discreditable. We would therefore warn publicly His Majesty's Government that if it does not fulfil its responsibilities under the mandate - above all with regard to the question of immigration - the Jewish people will feel obliged to lay before the nations of the world the request that the British leave Palestine. The Jewish Resistance Movement will make every effort to hinder the transfer of British bases to Palestine and to prevent their establishment in the country."

This broadcast is of particular significance by reason of the fact that it was given at the express request of Moshe Shertok, Head of the Jewish Agency's Political Department and a member of its Executive Committee, and had also been passed to David Ben Gurion, Chairman of the Executive Committee. This is made clear in the following telegram:


Telegram No. 8.

To "Daniel" in London from Sneh in Jerusalem.

12th May, 1946.

"Please pass on to Ben Gurion the text of the broadcast of Kol Israelsent herewith; with a note that the broadcast was made at the request of Shertok."

The telegram then repeats textually the broadcast message of the same date.

There followed on the night of the 16th June, 1946, the widespread and carefully planned attacks on vital communications and on the following night the attack on railway workshops. Kol Israel accepted full responsibility on behalf of "the Resistance Movement for the renewal of its activity as a result of the delaying policy of the British Government."

Kol Israel Broadcast.

1 8th June, 1946. "The action of blowing up the bridges expressed the high morale and courage of the Jewish fighters who carried out the attack. They had to pass long distances and to carry a large quantity of material for that purpose. The withdrawal was most difficult since all the police and army were on their feet and aircraft were looking for the attackers; despite all this the operation was executed and all objectives were reached according to plan without causing any loss of life to the guards. There were some casualties among attackers in the North owing to an unfortunate accident which was caused by the fall of a rocket directly onto a lorry loaded with explosives and the whole load blew up and the persons there were killed. Honour to their memory! The Army and Police became furious and started to discharge their wrath on the peaceful people of the nearby settlements; many settlers of Beth Haareva, Matzuva and Eilon were arrested and taken to Acre.

"Many messages of heartfelt appreciation were sent by various personalities and journalists to the Resistance Movement for the renewal of its activity as a result of the delaying policy of the British Government, the recent Bevin speech and the known announcement of Attlee. These objectives were chosen to disturb British bases and communications, to prevent the Arabs of the neighbouring countries who talked

23rd June, 1946.

"This is the Voice of Israel, the voice ofJewish Resistance. Last week we had to destroy the bridges - these bridges are just as much use to us as the authorities but they had to be destroyed to show our feelings."


CONCLUSION

The evidence contained in the foregoing pages is not, and is not intended to be, a complete statement of all the evidence in possession of His Majesty's Government.

Nor are the specific instances herein referred to by any means a complete list of all the incidents of violence and sabotage which have taken place in recent months.

The fact is that in the first six months of 1946 there were nearly fifty separate incidents involving violence, and in many cases loss of life: material damage toa very great extent has been done to railway installations, police and R.A.F. stations, and coastguard stations. Roads have been mined and vehicles have been blown up.

The above operations were widespread in character and caused very extensive damage. When they were almost immediately followed by the kidnapping of British officers, it was no longer possible for His Majesty's Government to adopt a passive attitude. Unless the Government were prepared to yield to threats of violence and toabandon all hope of establishing law and order, they were bound to take active steps against any persons or organisations who had made themselves responsible for the planning and carrying out of the outrages which are dealt with in this Paper.

This chapter contains details of the crimes committed by Zionist terrorist organizations in 1946. One of the most atrocious crimes was the massacre of the King David Hotel on the 22nd of July, 1946. The Jewish terrorists blew up a wing of the King David Hotel where the Secretariat of the Govemment of Palestine had its headquarters. Ninety-two persons were killed and 45 were injured. The following is a summary showing the types of terrorism committed in 1946 by the Zionist terrorists:

1. Blowing up of trains and bridges.
2. Killing British soldiers, officers and policemen.
3. Killing Arabs.
4. Taking and torturing hostages.
5. Robbing jewelry stores, mostly diamonds and gold.
6. Kidnapping of Jews.
7. Massacre of the King David Hotel (July 22).
8. Extortion of money from Jews and killing Jews for refusing to contribute to terrorists.
9. Cutting telephone lines and blowing up of central exchanges.
10. Placing bombs in buildings, markets and roads which killed or wounded civilians passing by, members of British armed forces, and British and Arab policemen.
11. Robbing banks and killing people during robberies.
12. Placing bombs in railway stations, markets and Government offices and exploding them, killing and injuring many people.
13. Assassination of British and Arab police officers.
14. Killing Arab children.
15. Derailing railway cars.
16. Placing boobytraps which killed soldiers and civilians.
17. Sniping at police and soldiers.
18. Armed robbery of banks.
19. Placing trucks filled with explosives near buildings, destroying them and killing and wounding many people.
20. Filling cars with explosives (about 40 lbs.) and exploding them by remote control, killing and wounding soldiers, policemen and civilians. Some buildings and houses were completely destroyed.
21. Setting cars of Jews and Arabs on fire and causing damage to passersby.
22. Kidnapping British officers and soldiers, flogging them, torturing them and humiliating them.
23. Throwing bombs in cafes, killing and injuring many people.

HOUSE OF COMMONS DEBATES

These Jewish terrorist crimes were often discussed in debates in the British House of Commons. The following are quotations from these debates.

On April 30th, 1946, Earl Winterton asked the Secretary of State for the Colonies if he had any statement to make on the murder of seven soldiers of the Sixth Airborne Division at Tel Aviv on April 25th.

The Secretary of State for the Colonies (Mr. George Hall): On the night of 25th April, an attack was carried out by 20 to 30 Jewish terrorists in civilian clothes against British soldiers of the 6th Airborne Division who were guarding a car park in Tel Aviv. The attack began with the throwing of an anti-personnel bomb into the car park, followed by heavy bursts of fire from adjoining houses. Under cover of this fire, the guard tent was rushed and two soldiers inside were shot dead in cold blood. Four other soldiers were shot and killed by fire directed at the car park. One lance corporal was fatally wounded and died in the hospital. Police personnel in an adjoining station opened fire on the attackers while retreating. The terrorists had systematically mined all the approach roads with anti-personnel mines which greatly delayed ambulances rushing to the aid of the casualties. While no arrests have been made of the perpetrators of this outrage, investigations are proceeding, and some 79 persons have been detained for interrogation. The town of Tel Aviv has been put out of bounds to British troops. This was a premeditated and vicious attack obviously designed to cause the maximum casualties. I endorse the High Commissioner's description of it as a coldblooded murder.(2)

On July 1, 1946, the question of Jewish terrorism was raised in the House of Commons.

Mr. Sydney Silverman (by Private Notice) asked the Prime Minister whether he has any statement to make concerning the attack by British troops upon the premises of the Jewish Agency and other places in Palestine and the detention by force of its executive members and more than a thousand otherpersons; under what international authority this step was taken and who will now perform the functions, which, by international law, devolve upon the Jewish Agency.

The Prime Minister (answered): With the permission of the House Ishouldliketomakeafull statement on the position in Palestine, in the course of which I will deal with the points put by my hon. Friend.

The House has been informed from time to time of acts of sabotage and terrorism in Palestine. In the face of these incidents the military and civil authorities have shown the greatest forbearance, and their action has hitherto been local or directed only against those immediately responsible for each particular incident. It has, however, become increasingly clear in recent months that these incidents form part of a concerted plan prepared and executed by highly developed military organisations with widespread ramifications throughout the country.

The Anglo-American Committee called special attention to the development of illegal armed forces as a sinister feature of recent years in Palestine. The largest of these is the Hagana, estimated to be about 70,000 strong, with a mobile striking force the Palmach, some 5,000 strong. This force has been developed on highly organised military lines and is armed with the most modern equipment. In addition there are two Jewish terrorist organisations - the Irgun Z'vai Leumi, which is believed to have between 5,000 and 6,000 adherents trained in street fighting and sabotage, and the Stern Group which specialises in assassination. The Hagana have been responsible for many instances of destruction of property and armed resistance to the Government; the other two organisations have been responsible for numerous acts of violence and murder and for the recent kidnappings.(3)

Within the past three weeks, sabotage of road and rail communications, including the blowing up of the principal bridges over the Jordan, has caused damage estimated at well over a quarter of a million pounds. On the night of 17th June the railway workshops at Haifa were seriously damaged by explosions and fire. The climax came on 18th June, when six British officers were kidnapped, and two others were seriously wounded. Three of those kidnapped are still held captive. These are the culminating events in a campaign of violence which since December has caused the death of 16 British soldiers and five police (including the seven soldiers murdered in cold blood at Tel Aviv on 25th April). The material damage has exceeded 400,000 Pounds.

His Majesty's Government, as Mandatory, have an international duty to maintain law and order in Palestine and full authority to take all necessary steps to that end. It was clear that we could no longer tolerate this direct challenge to our authority without abdicating this duty. I know what deep sympathy there is for the sufferings of the Jews in Europe and I appreciate the natural intensity of the feelings of those who experienced the atrocities of the Hitler regime, including murder and the taking of hostages. But this cannot condone the adoption by the Jews in Palestine of some of the very worst of the methods of their oppressors in Europe. Accordingly, after consultation with the civil and military authorities in Palestine, His Majesty's Government authorised the High Commissioner to take all necessary steps to restore order and to break up the illegal organisations, including the arrest of individuals believed to be responsible for the present campaign of violence. I am sorry to say that these included some of the leading members of the Jewish Agency. There is evidence of close connection between the Agency and the Hagana.(4)

Again, on July 31, 1946, the question of Jewish terrorism was discussed after the King David Hotel massacre. The Lord President of the Council, Mr. Herbert Morrison, opened the debate and stated:

This debate takes place in the shadow of a tragedy that must have moved the most war-hardened among us. In the destruction of the Government offices at the King David Hotel in Jerusalem, 84 men and women - Arabs, Jews, British - were killed, and 46 injured, while 22 are still missing. These were people innocent of any crime, members of the public going about their ordinary business, and many loyal and single-hearted servants of the community. I am sure that the whole House would wish me to express again the deep sympathy felt by the whole British people for the victims of thisoutrage. Police andmilitary forces have, on each occasion of acts of terrorism, instituted measures to track down and arrest those responsible.

The greatest obstacle to success in these operations has been the refusal of the Jewish population in Palestine to cooperate with the forces of law and order. Jewish settlers have resorted to passive resistance of the most determined kind against searches for terrorists. The Government have been equally determined to bring the perpetrators of these outrages to account, and reached the conclusion that radical action was needed against the organisers of illegal armed forces, and the organisations they control. Action to this end was initiated on 29th June when widespread arrests and searches were carried out by all the Security Forces in Palestine. The examination of detainees and the scrutiny of documents seized in those searches was still proceeding, when the latest and most tragic incident occurred -the destruction at the King David Hotel. Immediate action was taken to pursue the perpetrators of the outrage and 446 Jews were arrested, whose records showed association with the terrorist organisations. As there was clear evidence that some, if not all, of the persons responsible for the Jerusalem crime came from Tel Aviv, military operations in that town took place on 30th July to apprehend them.

The shock of the King David Hotel explosion has surely aroused us to a fuller understanding, if that were needed, of the horrible and monstrous nature of those "evil things" - to borrow a phrase used on a famous occasion - against which we are fighting. The curse of Hitler is not yet fully removed. Some of his victims fleeing from the ravaged ghettos of Europe have carried with them the germs of those very plagues from which they sought escape - intolerance, racial pride, intimidation, terrorism and the worship of force ....

The death of Lord Moyne in November, 1944, came as a startling proof of the evil nature of Palestinian (sic) terrorism and the lengths to which it would go. After that for a time the Jewish Agency cooperated with the Government in a campaign against the illegal organisations, the Irgun Z'vai Leumi and the Stern Gang. There was, for some months, a lull in terrorist activities, but in May, 1945, following threats by the Irgun Z'vai Leumi that V-Day for the world would be D-Day for them, there was a renewed outbreak of violence ....(5)

Mr. Oliver Stanley, member of the House of Commons from West Bristol, joined in the debate and stated:

Unfortunately, for the last four years we have seen in Palestine a steady deterioration in the security position. I have seen it myself, during my term of office, pass from the lull which there was when I first came in, to isolated action on the part of the Stern Gang, from that to bigger scale action by the Irgun Z'vai Leumi, at first under conditions which were carefully arranged to prevent the loss of life, and then I have seen that limitation abandoned and life as well as property become exposed to danger. All that time the Hagana and the Jewish Agency who control them not only stood aside but condemned those outrages by dissident bodies and, as the Lord President says, after the murder of Lord Moyne cooperated with the Government.

Unfortunately, it is clear that since those days the position has changed. When we last debated this matter on the Adjournment, the Prime Minister, speaking for the Government, said that he would produce in a White Paper evidence that would implicate both the Jewish Agency and the Hagana in responsibility for these outrages, and would show that they hadcooperated with theother dissident bodies which they had condemned before. Having seen the White Paper, I regret to have to say that find that the Government's charge is proved. I say I regret it because it is a matter of great regret that a policy of violence, which before was followed merely by a small and dissident minority, should have received the approval of a body such as the Jewish Agency, which represents so very much in the whole Jewish community in Palestine. I feel that the incident at the end of October, and the exchange of telegrams in connection with that incident which are published in the White Paper, show quite clearly that a definite planned outrage was undertaken by members of the Jewish Agency, and that in that outrage they were acting in the closest cooperation with the Irgun Z'vai Leumi and with the Stern group.(6)

Captain Delargy, member of Parliament from Manchester, stated:

I want to make reference to one point which is not usually raised in this House when Palestine is being debated, probably because it is a subject that is rather disagreable - the danger of a fresh outburst of anti-Semitism, not merely in Palestine among the Arabs but here and everywhere. It is a danger which does exist and is particularly acute after the recent explosion in Jerusalem. No good whatever can come from hiding the fact and pretending that the danger does not exist. However strongly and sincerely the Jewish leaders and people deplore and condemn the recent outrages in Palestine, nevertheless, there still remains in the minds of many people a suspicion, and more than a suspicion, that these outrages have some connection at least with the extremist political attitude of some Jews here, and more particularly in America. Indeed, the very fact that these acts were committed by Jews makes them appear to some people even more shocking than if they had been committed by other people, simply because there does exist a latent and potential hostility to the Jews.(7)

Mr. Clement Davies, member of Parliament from Montgomery, stated:

We are meeting today at a sad and most depressing moment. Not only have we been deeply shocked by the murders, the inexcusable acts of terrorism, which have been committed recently in Palestine, but there is at this moment a strained feeling between the people of this country and the great Jewish race, which is an even sadder thought. I wish all Jewish people would recall how much the British Government and the British people have endeavoured to assist them over the generations. We not only opened our shores to them, but opened every office to them. I know of no other country where a member of the Jewist race became the occupier of our most cherished position-Prime Minister. Jews have occupied the highest positions in law and on the Bench, and we are under a deep debt of gratitude to them for all they have done in art, culture, and science, and for what they have contributed to the well-being of the world.(8)

Mr. Lever, member of Parliament from Manchester, stated:

Mr. Lever (Manchester, Exchange): It is with some diffidence that I join with other non-experts on this subject in the Debate, but there are a few remarks which I feel ought to be addressed to the House about it. I have never myself been a Jewish nationalist. I have never supported extreme nationalism in Palestine or in Great Britain. I hold no brief for the Jewish Agency leaders in much of their propaganda, particularly that adopted in the United States and in this country, and particularly that which merely contents itself with being anti-British, and which has been used in the United States largely to encourage popularity. Still less have I any sympathy with the villainies of the terrorists of the extreme national movement in Palestine. I am somewhat sickened at the mealy- mouthed hypocrisy which permeates the atmosphere whenever the terrorists are discussed in this House. These terrorists are villainous, stupid and unbalanced people. If anyone is responsible for the deaths of Jews, Arabs and Englishmen in Palestine, it is those who have fomented the desperation of these terrorists, and encouraged their extreme nationalist ambitions without any hope of their being fulfilled.(9)

REPORTS FROM THE PUBLIC RECORD OFFICE, LONDON

1946

Note: LHI = The Stern Gang
IZL = The Irgun Z'vai Leumi
NMO = The National Military Organization

1 JANUARY 1946
On 1 Jan an accidental explosion in a LHI store in Tel Aviv led to Police investigation and the discovery of a large store
of arms, ammunition, pamphlets and documents, some of which suggested future targets. LHI broadcasts have threatened reprisals and assassination in return for the "murder" of the two detainees in Eritrea.
WO 169123031

10 JANUARY 1946
On the night of 19th January, armed Jews attempted to blow up the studios of the Palestine Broadcasting Service in St. Paul's Road, Jerusalem.

At about 2015 hours, a number of armed Jews placed explosives in the Electric Power Sub-Station near the broadcasting studios. These severed the land lines to the Ramallah transmitter and damaged the Sub-Station. Immediately after the explosion, a police and military patrol operating in the area engaged parties of armed Jews converging on the studio. The Jews opened fire on the patrol, who returned the fire inflicting casualties on the attackers. About the same time, an explosion occurred in the vicinity. This damaged part of the wall of the Central Prison, which abuts on to St. Pauls's Road.
CO 733/456

12 JANUARY 1946
On 12 Jan. a group of some 50 IZL members stopped, by means of an electrically fired charge, the railway pay train near Hadera. LP.35,000 were stolen. On 19 Jan a combined force of IZL and LHI attacked the Central Prison in Jerusalem with the intention of freeing certain of their members who were held there. A military patrol made contact with one of these groups before the operation had properly commenced and the attack was not successful. Probably severe casualties were inflicted on IZL and LHI including one known dead. One Army officer and one Police Officer were killed
WO 16912303 1

19 JANUARY 1946
At approximately 8 pm on January 19th. 1946, a series of terrorist outrages commenced in Jerusalem. These resulted in the deaths of an Army Officer and a Police Officer and the wounding of a Police Officer and a number of members of His Majesty's Process.

The attacks seem to have commenced at the Jerusalem Electric Corporation Sub-power Station in the Musrara Quarter. Here, a few minutes before 8 pm, one of the employees of the Corporation found that a padlock and chain on the entrance to the Sub-Station had been cut and were lying on the ground. He put through a telephone call to the Power Station after which he was held up by an armed Jew. This person ordered him to leave the premises, which he did. As he left he was able to see two other Jews, one of them a girl, join the person who ordered him away. Shortly afterwards, at about 8.07 pm, the Sub-Station was extensively damaged by an explosion. A witness living in the vicinity states that there were five Jews concerned in the attackand that the girl carried a pistol. All of them left shortly before the explosion occurred.

It would appear that while the attempt to destroy the Sub-Station was in progress other parties of armed Jews, including girls, were taking up positions in St. Paul's Road. On investigating the Constable saw three or four Jews lying in the road manning a Bren gun, with two or three other Jews standing over them. About eight girls were crouching against a wall and appeared to be carrying small arms. The Jews were wearing battle-dress and steel helmets, some of the girls blue shirts and khaki shorts and others khaki shirts and slacks. At this stage the Bren gun party was seen to open fire on a military patrol moving along St. Paul's Road. The fire was returned.
CO 733/456

19 JANUARY 1946
At approximate1 y 20 15 hours 19 January a party of armed Jews destroyed the Electric Power Sub-station in St. Pauls Road Jerusalem. Shortly afterwards a military patrol encountered two parties of armed Jews in the vicinity of the Palestine Broadcasting Station. Patrol was fired on and returned fire casualties were inflicted one wounded Jew arrested. An explosion occurred which damaged part of the wall of the Central Prison. In vicinity of prison PBS and Police HQ there was considerable firing some of which came from rooftops at police and military personnel. As a result of this one British officer was killed and one wounded. At approximately 2100 hours an army truck ran over a mine in St. Paul's Road which exploded. Shortly before 2200 hours a taxicab called at the Hadassah Hospital with 2 wounded Jews one dead Jew and some arms and ammunition. They were arrested. 2 other wounded also arrested.
WO 275/40

19 JANUARY 1946
A parcel containing 8 112 lbs of gelignite, and a detonator was found in the garden of the Polish Delegate at 106 Street of the Prophets, Jerusalem, on the morning of the 1st April. These articles are believed to have been dumped in the garden after the terrorist raid on the P.B.S. on 19 Jan '46. This is an added pointer to the existing belief that the terrorists engaged in this operation were panic stricken following the prompt action taken by the military and the police.
WO 16912303 1

20/21 JANUARY 1946
On the night of 20121 January the coastguard station at Givat Olga, previously attacked on 24/25 Nov. was more seriously damaged by a charge introduced during the rebuilding and fired by delay action. No warning by telephone was given this time. British soldier was killed and 14 injured, 1 Palestinian policeman was injured. The foreman and certain workmen responsible for the work of reconstruction, and presumably for the demolition, have been arrested.

On the same night at the R.A.F. Radar station of Mount Camel a telephone call was received at 2 1 : 15 saying that the station would be blown up. A search was made and an explosive charge was found placed against the hut. The charge was fitted with 3 WD red time pencils (half-hour delay) all of which had acted and released the striking pin, but the three firing caps were of local manufacture and defective. The charges were also fitted with booby traps in the form of two pull switches and one release switch which were successfully neutralized by RE. A letter from the Commander Hagana was later received by HQ Palestine congratulating the soldier who disarmed the charge, the object of this letter
being, presumably, publicity. WO 169123031

25 JANUARY 1946
On 25 Jan a group of twenty armed Jews stole L6000 worth
of yam from a warehouse in Tel Aviv.
WO 169123031

28 JANUARY 1946
At 1215 hours on 28 January 1946, a truck and a Jeep
approached Aqir aerodrome along a track from the direction of Aqir village. The two vehicles drew up some distance from the camp and one of the occupants who was wearing the uniform of a RAF OFficer alighted. He questioned an Arab working in a field and was directed to the tarmac road, the normal approach to the aerodrome. The vehicles then proceeded direct to 160 MU Armoury which is situated inside Aqir camp near to the hangars. This building is connected by a short corridor to the turret repair room and access to the Armoury is usually through the turret repair room and the corridor. The occupants of the truck entered the turret repair room and held up all those present, a RAF corporal and 3 airmen, who were on guard duty, together with 8 Arab and 6 Jewish civilian employees. The British personnel were tied up and gagged, the others were placed under a guard in the turret repair room. The "Officer" then took two Arab employees to the Armoury where he demanded the keys to the ammunition store and the Sten gun racks. These were not produced, so the corrugated iron door to the store was forced with a crowbar which the attackers had brought with them and the wire hawser holding the Sten guns in their rack was cut.

Meanwhile the truck had been brought to the Armoury door after the gate to the wired-in enclosure protecting it had been broken open. 7 Arab employees were forced to assist in loading Sten guns, Vickers guns and a quantity of ammunition on to the vehicle.

At approximately 1320 hours, the Arabs were returned to the turret room. After a warning had been given that any person moving until ten minutes had elapsed would risk being shot, the truck moved off, to be followed five minutes later by the "Officer" and the remainder of his party. The RAF personnel then gave the alarm and mobile patrols searched the area.

The truck was found bogged and abandoned 800 metres from the camp, but still loaded with arms. All the RAF property with the exception of 9 Sten guns and 50 rounds of ammunition was recovered.
WO 275/40

3 FEBRUARY 1946
On 3 Feb, six to eight armed Jews, wearing battledress, captured arms from R.A.F. convalescent depot near Tel Aviv, the guards of which were Jewish.
WO 169123031

6 FEBRUARY 1946
On the 6 Feb, L.H.I. attacked a Kings African Rifle Coy Camp outside Tel Aviv and, killing one British Officer and one African soldier, stole a number of arms which they carried away in two trucks, one of which was a stolen military vehicle. The African soldiers pursued the terrorists into the Zionist Terrorism and Crimes in Palestine 1946 95 adjacent village, and three Jewish civilians were killed and five others injured. L.H.I. broadcast claimed the credit for this attack.
WO 169123031

6 FEBRUARY 1946
On the night of 6 Feb, an unsuccessful attack was made by Hagana on the Police station at Safad. It is thought that the object of the attack was to release eleven Jews who had been arrested and who were held in the Safad Police Station. These Jews have now been transferred to Latrun, and there has again been a report of a contemplated attack on Latrun.
WO 169123031

15 FEBRUARY 1946
At about 0820 hours today, 15th February, attempt was made by Jewish terrorists on the life of Cafferata, Superintendent of Police, whilst driving from his residence to his office in Haifa. Road was partially blocked by stationary truck and Cafferata was about to slow down when his British police escort noticed tommygun concealed under the raincoat of Jew nearby. Escort opened fire with sten gun and Cafferata accelerated past the stationary truck. Another truck chased Cafferata's car for a short distance firing heavily. Escort returned the fire.
CO 733/456

20/21 FEBRUARY 1946
On the night of 20121 Feb, the Radar Station was unsuccessfully attacked by Hagana. 8 F.A.F. personnel were injured and the station was extensively damaged. The charge was placed in exactly the same position as before, but no time delay fuse was used. It seems that the charge was laid by a small party of two or three men who were covered by larger group outside the wire. A Hachoma broadsheet published after this attack said:-

"The Radar, one of the best inventions of science and culture for the progress and comfort of peoples, is exploited by the servants of a criminal regime to prevent the redemption of stricken refugees. Therefore the instrument has got its punishment .... This morning at 3 a.m. Jewish fighters broke into the place and threw explosives on the Radar with the utmost care not to cause loss of life. The Radar is destroyed! The fighting continues! This is the end of any obstacle put on the way of immigration and rescue of Israel remnants."
WO 169123031

21 FEBRUARY 1946
On the night of 21 Feb concerted Hagana attacks were made on the P.M.F. stations at Shafr Amr, Kfar Vitkin and Sarona. Some damage to the buildings and vehicles was caused. The attack at Sarona was late and a failure. A military report criticizes the Sarona attack and suggests that the covering fire employed was inadequate and that the attackers did not seem to have tried very hard to maintain their objective. One P.M.F. sentry post succeeded in silencing three Bren guns. Four of the attacking Jews were killed.
WO 169123031

21/22 FEBRUARY 1946
Attacks were made last night on Police Mobile Force Camps at Shafr Amr, Kfar Vitkin and Sarona. At 10.20 p.m. a party of armed Jews cut through perimeter fence at Shafr Amr and succeeded in placing charges against the building. These exploded causing considerable damage. One British Police Officer received slight head injuries and three British women and one child are suffering from shock. Police opened fire and attacker withdrew.

At about 11 p.m. another party gained access to the Police car park at Kfar Vitkin and placed explosive charges amongst the vehicles, causing damage to six vehicles and the oil store. Four persons seen near the perimeter fence were fired upon by the Guard, but made good their escape. Shortly after midnight, some Jews were observed acting in a suspicious manner near North fence of Sarona camp. Guard turned out and attacked with small arms and grenades.
CO 733/456

25 FEBRUARY 1946
On 25 Feb I.Z.L. attacked airplanes dispersed at R.A.F. airfields at Lydda, Petah Tiqva and Qastina. Seven aircrafts were destroyed and fifteen damaged by explosive charges placed on the wings and engines. This was acompetent attack, carried out in each case by one or two men who were supported by very strong covering parties. One Jew was killed and I.Z.L. have published the usual obituary notice.
WO 169123031

6 MARCH 1946
3 ton Dodge truck with a number of Jews on board entered Sarafand Camp, overpowered the guard and made off with approximately 10 boxes of assorted S.A.A. This was subsequently recovered near Ezra Bitsarou. 11 Jews were arrested as the result of this attack.
WO 169123031

9 MARCH 1946
15 Cwt truck driven by a Jew in RAF uniform was stopped at road block outside Sarona. In the truck were 6 Sten guns, a sack of ammunition, a sack of magazines and some live bombs. Truck evidently proceeding to R.V. for a raid. A number of ABs 64 were found in the truck. All had bogus names and particulars. Driver of truck Eliezer Samier was already a suspect.
WO 169123031

22 MARCH 1946 LHI murder of Mr. Gotthilf Wagner, former Burgomaster of Sarona, at Tel Aviv. WO 169123031

24 MARCH 1946
6 Jews approached Yibna railway station and opened fire on Railway police. When the Police returned the fire, the Jews withdrew.
WO 169123031

2 APRIL 1946
Between 2030 hours and 2200 hours, 2 April 1946, attacks were made on the railway line and installations between Yibna Station 128143 and Isdud 1 18129, and on the police post at 122136.

The first attack was made by a party of 30-40 armed Jews on the railway station and railway police blockhouse at Yibna 128143 and showed every evidence of careful planning. Mines were placed on the road North of the station and on the road bridge South of it, to delay interference from outside. Meanwhile, under cover of small arms fire, charges were put on the line at several points and under the railway bridge at 12661416.

The police however, soon began a brisk interchange of fire and owing partly to this and partly to the poor quality of the Jewish fuses little damage was done. The railway bridge was not put out of action and only one other charge exploded, which cut a small section of the line.

At 2130 hours a patrol of 9 Para Bn arrived in the Yibna area. A Jeep passing through the mines on the bridge at 12671419 set one off, but itself suffered only minor damage. A 3-ton vehicle following behind also set one off and men jumping from the back exploded a third. It is considered that by this time the attackers had withdrawn, but the patrol was fired on by a police detachment from the area of the railway line 12671417 and it was not until 2315 hours that it could identify itself. At 2210 hours a platoon of 5 Bara Bn arrived at the bridge and a fighting patrol was made to the police post at 1275 1425 where a PMF patrol was contacted.

No casualties were suffered by the police, but the following personnel of 9 Para Bn were injured by the mine on bridge at 12671419:-

14387657 LICpl BATLEY (slight)
1794780 Pte BRISTOL (slight)
Pte NEIKHE (serious)
One dead Jew was found at Yibna.
WO 275/40

3 APRIL 1946
At 0035 hours 3 April 1946 a company of 6 Para Bn was sent off to investigate the road and railway from road junction 12421396 to Al Majdal area 110119.

This company contacted the police post at Sukreir 12201365 which reported being attacked at 2130 hours. They had one minor casualty and attackers were driven off.

At 0145 hours the patrol reached Jisr Isdud where the police at 11871323 reported that they had been attacked at 21 30 hours but had had no casualties.

Isdud railway station 11851315 which was contacted at 0200 hours reported an attack at 2130 hours. One Arab TAC had been killed and a railway engine and tender set on fire.
WO 275/40

13 APRIL 1946
On 13 April just after noon, the IZL delivered two simultaneous attacks against the guard room at 3 Con Depot and 179 Leave Camp, Nathanya. At the Con Depot six men dressed in military uniform drove up to the guard room in a truck, overpowered the guard and made away with five TSMG and 5 SMLE rifles. Meanwhile at No. 179 Leave Camp a truck and car filled with men disguised as Italian collaborationists drove up to the armoury. They overpowered the guard and demanded the armoury key from the NCC who denied being in possession although it was in his pocket. The raiders then hurriedly left, taking with them one rifle which they had taken from the sentry. The NCC as soon as they had gone, opened up the armoury and fired at the departing vehicle.
WO 169123031

17 APRIL 1946
On 17 April an explosion tookplace in a house in Tel Aviv, which blew down the front garden wall, demolished two out-houses, and broke all the windows within a radius of 20 yards. Various damaged parts of warlike equipment were found on the scene of the incident, and it is believed that this was an LHI arms cache.
WO 169123031

23 APRIL 1946
On the 23 April at about midday, Police post at Ramat Gan was attacked by a force of between 20 and 30 strong. Yet another ruse was attempted to gain admission to the station while a diversionary show was put on at Tel Aviv. A Jew dressed as a British Sgt went up to the Police post and reported the arrest of 10 Arabs. Whilst he was making his report, two men appeared dressed as soldiers escorting 10 ostensible Arabs. Once inside the wire this party produced concealed weapons and proceeded to attack the post. Reinforcements numbering some 15 to 20 came up and joined in the party. They paid particular attention to the armoury and succeeded in escaping with a good haul of weapons including rifles, brens and a 3" mortar. During the getaway they were engaged by two British constables, and were also fired on by a PMF truck which was hastening to the scene of action. The raiders left behind them one killed and three wounded prisoners. It is reasonable to suppose that they suffered further casualties as a TSMG was emptied into the back of the truck as it drove away. The truck was later found abandoned with plenty of evidence to show that the fire directed at it had proved effective. It would appear that some members of the LHI group assisted in this attack.
WO 169123031

25/26 APRIL 1946
At 2030 hours 25 April three vehicles stopped at the house opposite the entrance to the Divisional Car Park in Tel Aviv 12781643. Between 25 and 30 civilians entered the house, where they held up the occupants and established fire positions overlooking the guard tents.

The car park is bounded by Zerubabel Street, Sir Hubert Samuel Esplanade and Ezra Street and faces the sea. Apak Police Station adjoins and East side.

The guard normally consists of 3 NCO's and 12 ORs but at the time of the attack only the guard commander and 7 men were in the car park, the remainder being allowed out for recreation after their tour of duty. When attacked, the NCO and 2 men were in the guard tent, 2 men were in an adjacent tent and 3 men were on actual duty, one as sentry at the entrance and 2 patrolling.

At 2045 hours the gate sentry saw something thrown from the nearby house, which exploded in front of the guard tent. At the same time a burst of automatic fire was directed at him Zionist Terrorism and Crimes in Palestine 1946 97 from the same buildings, forcing him to take cover under a vehicle.

At this point the entrance to the car park was rushed by some 20-30 men in civilian clothes who killed a soldier who was standing near the wire. They then entered the first tent where the Sgt of the guard, Sgt Peat, was trying to unlock rifles from the rack and where Pte Mackay and Gilliard were lying on the ground taking cover from the first burst of fire. The attackers shone torches on the 3 soldiers and fired a burst from a TSMG at Mackay and Gilliard killing both. Another burst was fired at Sgt Peat, missing him, and he fell to the ground pretending to be dead.

It is not known what happened in the third tent, as both of the occupants were killed. They were however unarmed.

The raiders removed 12 rifles from the rack in the guard tent and withdrew when a bugle sounded the retreat. A PMF urban patrol consisting of one armoured car supported by a section of 6 GORDONS was at the Apak Police Station at the time of the attack, but the armoured car commander and the officer of the section were inside the station at the time. Small explosive charges were thrown at the armoured car forcing it away. The car commander from the roof of the Police Station observed some 30 persons moving from the entrance of the car park in an easterly direction firing as they went. Attackers dispersed in the Yemenite section of the Karton Quarter.

Road mines had been placed on all roads leading to the area and illuminated warning notices in English, Arabic and Hebrew were put up.

Casualties own troops:-

KILLED

2887006 Pte MORRISON, A 5 Para Bn
7021365 Pte GILLIARD, J 5 Para Bn
14867443 Re McKAY, H 5 Para Bn
14533981 Pte LEWIS, H 5 Para Bn
14454077 Pte KNIGHT, N 5 Para Bn
180224 12 Re HOPE, J 5 Para Bn
WOUNDED SINCE DIED OF WOUNDS
57341 60 L/Cpl PARK, J 5 Para Bn

Cause of death in each case was multiple gunshot wounds.

No known casualties were inflicted on the attackers but a blood trail was found leading North from the garden from which covering fire was given.

The Yemenite area Tel Aviv was cordoned at 252230 hours by 6 GORDONS and a curfew was imposed. A search was begun at 0530 hours by PMF with 5 Para Bn in support and detachments 9 Airborne Squadron RE, and a prison cage set up in the Airborne Car Park by 0800 hours. At 0930 hours search half completed and 30 doubtful characters detained. At 1145 hours 2 Arabs on the edge of the cordon in area Hacarmel Street were accidentally shot and wounded by a burst of Sten fire; one has since died. The search was completed by 1205 hours, by which time 1491 persons had been interrogated of which 79 were detained. A quantity of WD property including tires and rations were covered. Documents found included a plan for a future attack on Atulit.
WO 275/40

 

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Encyclopedia of the Palestine Problem
By Issa Nakhleh

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