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Encyclopedia of the Palestine Problem

CHAPTER TWENTY EIGHT Part 3 of 4

JEWISH SETTLER TERRORISM AGAINST PALESTINIANS IN THE WEST BANK AND GAZA STRIP

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES OF 25 SUSPECTS IN THE ALLEGED TERROR UNDERGROUND (42)

1. Menachem Livni, 37, the Jewish Quarter, Hebron. Livni is the alleged leader of the terrorist organization, and his name appears at the top of the list of the five charges in which various members are said to have taken part. He is also thought to be among the founders of the underground, which according to the charge sheet, began to form as early as 1978.

A graduate of the Technicon and a qualified engineer, Livni is also commander of a reserve battalion of army engineers. He first arrived in Hebron in 1970 and rapidly became a central figure among the settlers, being elected chairman of the Kiryat Arba council in 1977. Until his arrest, he was chairman of the Committee for the Renewal of Jewish Settlement in the City of the Patriarchs a registered public association, which was engaged in planning and carrying out large scale plans for the reestablishment of a Jewish presence inside Hebron.

In 1977, a former commander of the West Bank urged the Interior Ministry not to register the association, because he felt that it and its founders "would bring about the disturbance of public order in the area." To support his opinion, he attached the police records of the founders, who included Rabbi Moshe Levinger and another defendant in the current trial-Ze'ev Friedman.

In an interview with the Jerusalem Post last August, Livni said: "Arabs kill Arabs, and Arabs kill Jews. Jews don't kill either Arabs or other Jews." He found it "difficult to believe" that it had been Jews who carried out the attack on the Islamic college in Hebron. One could not be sure, he admitted, since every society has its extremists, but this was an extraordinary case.

He said that the security forces' failure to ensure the security of the settlers was like "an open door that attracts a thief." His message to the local Arabs was the "same as that of Joshua when he entered the Promised Land." Those who wish to remain and live with the Jews can stay, those who wish to leave may do so and those who want to fight will find the Jews ready for battle.

Military government officials who know Livni describe him as an able organizer and generally a calm, rational person who could, on occasion, lose control.

One of the settlers who was in daily contact with him said that Livni was dedicated to the army, used toprepare at length prior to stints of reserve duty and was always interested in courses the military were offering.

He used to own a small metal-working plant, which he recently sold, and devoted all of his time to the association. From the charge sheet, Livni appears to be the person who decided on the attacks, planned them, recruited others, prepared explosives and trained alleged accomplices in their use, but he did not physically participate in any of the attacks themselves.

Apart from the charges of membership and activities on behalf of a terrorist organization, Livni faced charges of premeditated murder arising out of an attack on the Islamic University in Hebron, attempted murder, conspiracy to commit a crime, the illegal possession of weapons and damage to army property.

2. Yehuda Etzion, 33, Ofra. Together with Livni, Yehuda Etzion emerges as one of the founders and central figures of the organization. He is charged with involvement in the plot to blow up the mosques on Temple Mount and the attempted assassination of the West Bank mayors and other radical leaders.

He is the son of Avraham Mintz, one of the founding fathers of Gush Emunim, and was among the organizers of the early demonstrations at Sebastia in 1974 75. He was one of the founders of Ofra, leading Gush Emunim settlement. Etzion was elected a member of the Gush's central committee and wrote and edited several of the movement's publications.

Over the past few years he reportedly devoted considerable time to studying the religious issues concerning the Temple Mount and is said to have developed a fanatical aversion to the presence of mosques there.

He is charged with offences under the Prevention of Terrorism Ordinance. 1948, attempted murder, conspiracy, possession of explosives and damage to military property.

3. Shaul Nir, 30, Jewish Quarter, Hebron. Better known by his nickname, "Shauli, " Nir is alleged to have been one of the leading participants in all of the suspected activities of the organization apart from the 1980 attack on the mayors. He is also charged with having conducted his own "private" operation when on October 29, 1982 he allegedly placed two booby trapped IDF shrapnel grenades in the courtyard of the Hussein school in Hebron. One grenade exploded there, wounding two youths.

Nir is thought to have recruited his younger brother, Barak, (suspect number 13) for the attempted sabotage of the buses and the attack on the Islamic University.

Together with Livni, Nir is accused of having decided on attacks on mosques in Hebron and of having planted boobytrapped grenades outside mosques in late December 1983 together with Uzi Sharabaf, (suspect number 12). Two Moslem guards were injured when the grenades exploded.

Both men grew up in Netanya and served in combat units in the army, and were outstanding soldiers.

Shaul Nir joined the Shavei Shomron settlement in Samaria and moved to the Jewish Quarter of Hebron four years ago. As a qualified building technician, he was active in the Committee for the Renewal of Jewish Settlement in the Jewish Quarter in the town and took pride in the fact that he personally was renovating the Avraham Avinu synagogue, and built his own apartment next to that. He studied at the Shavei Hevron yeshiva in Beit Romano in the heart of the former Jewish quarter of the city.

He is alleged to have been one of the people who attacked the Islamic University in Hebron in July of last year, together with Levinger's son in law, Uzi Sharabaf (suspect number 12), in order to avenge the murder of a yeshiva student in Hebron three weeks earlier.

He now faces a charge of premeditated murder, attempted murder, membership in a terrorist organization and other ancillary charges.

4. Seren (Captain) Yeshua Ben Shoshan, 34, Jerusalem. A serving captain in the IDF, Ben Shoshan is alleged to have known and approved of the attempt to blow up the Dome of the Rock, the attack on the mayors, the Islamic University murders and the planned sabotage of the buses.

Until his arrest he was serving as an officer in charge of area defence in the Ramallah area, military units made up predominantly of the settlers themselves.

The son of a veteran Jerusalem family, which on his father's side goes back eight generations, Ben Shoshan was anoutstanding infantry officer who once served as acompany commander in the Shaked reconnaissance and commando unit during the War of Attrition.

He was seriously injured during an operation on the African side of the Suez Canal during the 1973 Yom Kippur War and after his release from hospital joined the group that was to establish the Gush Emunim settlement of Eilon Moreh.

He participated in the Gush demonstrations in Hawara in 1974, together with prominent political figures such as Minister without Portfolio ArieI Sharon, the late Rabbi Zvi Yehuda Kook, spiritual mentor of Gush Emunim, and Geula Cohen.

He maintained some loose contact with Sharon, and the former militq governor of the West bank and now No. 2 on Ezer Weizman's Yahad list, reserve brigadier general Binyamin Ben Eliezer, was considered a good friend.

He left Eilon Moreh and studied at a yeshiva in Jerusalem and then rejoined the IDF and the military government.

He is thought to have developed fanatical and mystical religious views, and neighbors in Jerusalem's Mekor Baruch quarter report that Yehuda Etzion (suspect number 2) was a very frequent visitor. Associates from the settlements, where he was a much abired figure, said that he devoted as much time as he could to the study of the issues concerning the Temple Mount.

As an alleged party to the plot to attack the Islamic University, Ben Shoshan faces a murder charge in addition to attempted murder and other ancillary charges mentioned above.

5. Yitzhak Ganirum, 46. Ramat Magshimim. One of the first settlers in Kiryat Arba, "Akale" Ganiram is one of the veterans of Levinger's group of settlers. He accompanied the rabbi in 1968 when they booked into the Park Hotel as "Swiss touristsy" and then announced that they were in the city to stay.

Elected to the central committee of Gush Emunim, in 1973 74 Ganiram moved to Ramat Magshimim, the Gush's settlement on the Golan. An extremely sociable man, whose house was always open and packed with friends and visitors, he became a successful and moderately wealthy avocado farmer.

He is accused of participating in the attack on the mayors, the plot to blow up the Temple Mount and the attack on the Islamic University. In this case he was informed of the plan after it had been conceived, and provided the attackers with the car they used. Ganiram is accused of premeditated murder and the other ancillary charges.

6. Benzion Heineman, 48, Susiya. The oldest of the alleged conspirators, "Benz" Heineman is also one of the veterans of the 1968 return to Hebron. He was elected to the first executive committee of Gush Emunim together with kvinger, former Tehiya MK Hanan Porat and Benny Katzover of Eilon Moreh. He was among the founders of Moshav Nov on the Golan and is considered a central and prominent figure in the settlement movement.

His name appears in connection with the plot to destroy the Temple Mount, the attack on the mayors and the attempted sabotage of the buses. His brother Ya'acov (suspect number 7) and his son Boaz (suspect number 15) apparently were recruited by him.

Oneof his associates from the Golan, Yair Ben Horin, was also detained during the early stages of the investigation and eventually released. Together with Ben Horin and his brother Michael, Heineman was one of the main organizers in the "Stop the Withdrawal'' from Sinai movement. As a fairly large scale building contractor, he was able to organize the construction of the "protest" settlement of the Atzmona and Hatzar Hadar in the Sinai.

Raised on the religious moshav of Kfar Avrahan~ near Petah Tikva, Heineman graduated from Yeshivat Merkaz Harav in Jerusalem, the crucible of the Gush ideology. Neither was considered particularly religious before joining the settlement movement, when they became far more observant and involved with religious study.

"Benz" is considered a wealthy man with widespread interests in land, construction, orchards and even an aplary. He also initiated the establishment of the settlers' restaurant near the Cave of the Machpela in Hebron and remains a shareholder. He is reported to have made large contributions to the settlement effort. He supplied transport and equipment for many of the settlers' demonstrations and early efforts at establishing themselves.

Following the 1980 attack at Beit Hadassah, Heineman came from the Golan to participate in the reconstruction of the Jewish Quarter.

Recently he established a construction company in Susiya, to encourage Jews to return to the building trade. He also moved to the settlement, in the South Hebron Hills. He faces charges of attempted murder arising out of his alleged role in the attack on the mayors, the attempt to sabotage the buses, and other ancillary charges.

7. Ya'ucov Heineman, 36. Nov/Susiya. "Yankele" Heineman's name appears in the charge sheets in connection with the Temple Mount plot and the attempted sabotage of the buses. A reserve Air Force pilot, he sewed as a flight instructor prior to his discharge.

Although not mentioned in the charges submitted to the court. Seineman reportedly raised the idea of bombing the Temple Mount from the air. The idea was rejected when other alleged plotters expressed reservations about possible damage to the Western Wall.

Recently separated from his wife, he moved to Susiya, where he was engaged in raising sheep. Heineman is now accused of attempted murder in addition to the other charges most of the group face.

8. Dan Be'eri, 40. Jewish Quarter, Jerusalem. Originally a French Catholic, Be'eri immigrated to Israel some 15 years ago and became a deeply religious convert to Judaism, He worked as a teacher and social worker and is considered a talmid haham an outstanding religious scholar.

The director of a Talmud Tora in Kiryat Arba, Be'eri is deeply respected by former pupils and close acquaintances. Some of these acquaintances have now said that this deep belief bordered on the mystic and messianic, He has also worked with juvenile delinquents and has adopted several children.

Be'eri is alleged to have gathered infomation necessary for the planning of the attempt to sabotage the car of the East Jerusalem engineer Ibrahim Dakkak in Wadi Joz, and to have paflicipated in the Temple Mount plot.

He faces a charge of attempted murder, in addition to the other charges.

9. Gil'ud Puli, 30. Keshet. A graduate of Mercaz Harav in Jerusalem Peli is the son of one of the veterans of Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir's pre state Lehi underground. He is also a cousin of Yehuda Etzion's (Suspect Number 2) who is thought to have recruited him.

Peli pleaded guilty to membership in a terrorist organization and to three counts of conspiracy, including the Temple Mount plot. Sentencing is due.

10. Ze'ev Friedman, 30, Kiryat, Arba, Better known as "Zambish." Friedman has probably been one of the most prominent in the list of suspects long known to journalists and hesset members. He was elected as chairman of the Kiryat Arba council and also served as the town's security coordinator. He is a reserve officer in the armored corps.

According to the charge sheet Friedman, together with Uri Maier (Suspect Number 141, went to the home of the prominent radical Palestinian leader Dr. Ahmed Natshe in Bethlehem on the night of June 1 and planned to plant a bomb in his car. They were frightened off by a neighbor's dog, which began barking as they approached the house.

In addition, he is accused of having gathered intelligence on Dakkak and on the Temple Mount. He faces a charge of attempted murder in addition to the other charges.

11. Haim Ben David (Klieger), 32, Keshet. One of the central figures among the settlers on the Golan, Ben David is accused of participating in the Temple Mount plot, the attack on the may06 and the attempted bus sabotage. Among the founders of Keshet following the 1973 war, he was director of a field school there. He was among those active in trying to prevent the withdrawal from Juneitra during the disengagement agreements with the Syrians.

He, together with Akale Ganiram (Suspect Number 5) is accused of going to Dakkak's house in Wadi Joz with a bomb which they intended to plant in his car. They could not find his car (Dakkak was abroad at the time) and had to abandon their plan.

Ben David faces charges of attempted murder arising out of this case and the attempt on the buses, as well as the other ancillary charges.

12. Uzi Sharabaf, 24, Jewish Quarter, Hebron. Together with Shauli Nir, Sharabaf, who married Rabbi Moshe Levinger's daughter, is accused of attacking the Islamic University (in July 1983). He is also accused of planting the time bombs in the five buses in East Jerusalem.

In late December last year he is alleged to have planted booby trappd grenades outside two mosques in Hebron in which two people were injured. His accomplice in this, according to the charge sheet, was "Shauli" Nir (Suspect Number 3).

Born in Jerusalem, he served in a combat unit in the army, and studies at the Shavei Hevron Yeshiva in Hebron and at the Sabato Yeshiva in Jerusalem. He serves in a paratroop reconnaissance unit in the reserves.

His wife is in her last month of pregnancy. The couple lives next to her parents, near Hebron's Avraham Avinu synagogue.

Sharabaf faces a charge of premeditated murder and attempted murder, as well as other secondary charges.

13. Burak Nir, 25, Ramat Eshkol, Jerusalem. A former resident of Shavei Shomron in Samaria, he is thought to have been recruited by his older brother "Shauli" and to have been the driver in the attack on the Islamic University. Both brothers, together with LJzi Sharabaf, are also alleged to have actually planted the time bombs in the five buses in East Jerusalem on the night of April 26, 1984. Also accused of participating in the Temple Mount plot, he faces charges of premediated murder, attempted murder and other offences.

14. Uri Muier, 36, Ramat Magshimim. According to the charge sheet, Maier, together with "Zambish" Friedman (Suspect Number lo), attempted to plant a bomb in the car of Dr. Ahmed Natshe in Bethlehem but were frightened off. He was also a part of the conspiracy to destroy the Temple Mount mosques.

His arrest and maignment before court deeply shocked residents of the Golan, where he was a central figure, active in establishing and running numerous regional factories. He faces a charge of attempted murder and is also alleged to have paflicipated in the Temple Mount plot.

15. Boaz Heineman, 23, Moshav Nov. The youngest of all the alleged conspirators, Boaz is the son of the oldest of them, "Benz" Heinemm (Suspect Number 6). He is accused of stealing and preparing explosives for use in the Temple Mount plot and [he attempt to blow up the buses. He is charged with attempted murder and other related offences. Like his father and uncle, Ya'acov, Boaz recently moved to Susiya in the South Hebron Hills, as a one year volunteer to help the new settlement.

16. Avinoam Kufrieli, 23, Rarnot, Jerusalem. A student at a yeshiva in the Old City of Jerusalem, together with Suspect Number 17, Yossi Zurai, Katrieli is accused of posing as an army officer in order to buy a silencer for an Uzi submachine gun. He also provided Yehuda Etzion (Suspect Number 2) with special mmunition necessary for a silenced Uzi. Etzion gave the weapon and ammunition to Yeshua Ben Shoshan (Suspect Number 4) who hid them in Jerusalem according to the charge sheet. All of the alleged actions were part of the plot to blow up the Temple Mount mosques.

Katrieli is accused of conspiracy, and the illegal possession of ams after a plea bargain. The charge of membership in a terror organization was dropped.

17. Yosef Zuria, 25, Ramat Hasharon. The suspect's father, Haim Zuria, of Shavei Shomron in Samaria, is a well known figure among the settlers, who once wrote an article in Nekuda on "our right to hate the Arabs." Yossi Zuria grew up in Shavei Shomron. He is married to the daughter of Avner Shalev, a senior Education Ministry official and former chief education officer in the IDF.

Zuria last week entered a guilty plea to conspiracy to attack the Temple Mount, illegal possession of weapons and aggravated fraud. He is due to be sentenced next month {August, 1984).

18. Menachem Neuberger, 28, Susiya. Married to the daughter of Rabbi Eliezer Waldman, head of the yeshiva at Kiryat Arba, Neuberger is a student at the yeshiva. He is accused of gathering intelligence for the attack on Dr. Natshe in Bethlehem, and of having participated in the plot to attack the Temple Mount. Charged with attempted murder and other ancillary offences.

19. Noam Yinon, 27, Keshet. Following pleas bargaining by his counsel, Yinon pleaded guilty to transporting 50 mines from the Golan to other conspirators in the West Bank. He has already been convicted.

20. Yehuda Cohen, Ofra. Alleged to have collected intelligence for the planned attack on the Temple Mount, Cohen has been released on bail.

21. Yossi Edri, 23, Kiryat Arba. A yeshiva student at Kiryat Arba, Edri is alleged to have bought the clocks that served as the timing devices for some of the bombs Livni (Suspect Number 1) and Shauli Nir (Suspect Number 3) prepared for the planned attack on the buses. He faces a charge of attempted murder.

22. Moshe Zar, 47, Karnei Shomron. Probably the leading land dealer in Samaria and on the West Bank, Zar is one of the best known of the accused. His name has been linked in several cases involving fraudulent land transactions, one of which is still pending, and in cases where pressure was allegedly used to bring about the transfer of privately owned Arab land. In March 1983, Zar was attacked, and critically injured, by residents of the village of Jinsafout, with whom he was involved in a land dispute.

Wounded in the 1956 Sinai campaign, Zar later joined the religious moshav of Nehalim near Petah Tikva, where he met Rabbi Moshe kvinger. His elaborate four story house on one of the hills near Karnei Shomron is probably the largest private Jewish residence in the territories.

Zar is alleged to have participated in sabotaging Nablus Mayor Bassam Shak'a's car on June 1, 1980. His alleged accomplice in the attack was Natan Nathanson of ShiIo (Suspect Number 25). Their suspected driver was Ira Rappaport, currently a Gush Emunim aliya emissary in New York.

Zar faces a charge of attempted murder or, alternatively, causing grievous bodily harm.

23. Hagui Segal, 27, Ofra. One of the current editors of Nekdu, the settlers' magazine, Segal once wrote an article criticizing the magazine's description of the persons responsible for the 1980 attack on the mayors as "criminals".

Segal is accused of planting a bomb in the car of Ramallah Mayor Karim Khalaf, and of booby trapping the garage of El Bireh Mayor Ibrahim Tawil. A Border Police sapper, Suleiman Hirbawi, was blinded when the bomb outside Tawil's garage exploded.

Segal's alleged accomplices in these attacks are Yitzhak Novick also of Ofra (Suspect Number 24) and Yossi Indor, who is currently a fugitive, Indor is the younger brother of Meir Indor, a former Kiryat Arba activist and one time . emissary for the Gush in the U.S.

Segal was also a regular contributor to Mu'uriv and was reportedly recruited to the organization by Suspect Number 2, Yehuda Etzion, also of Ofra. He faces a charge of attempted murder or, alternatively, causing grievous bodily harm.

24. Yitzhak Novik, 36, Ofra. Novik is alleged to have been Segal's accomplice in the attacks on Khalaf and Tawil. Like Segal and Zar, Novik is not said to be involved in any other of the alleged terrorist conspiracy's activities.

He worked in the orchards of Ofra and was regarded as an introverted and extremely studious person. He was never active in public affairs.

25. Natun Nathanson , 27, Shilo. A former secretary of the Shilo settlement, "Nus" Nathanson currently serves as the chairman of its absorption committee. He is active in Gush Emunim and on the Mateh Binyamin Local Council.

Nathanson is accused, together with Moshe Zar, and possibly his neighbour from Shilo, Im Rappaport, of planting a bomb in Bassam Shak'a's car outside his home in Nablus.

From the evidence now emerging in court, it also appears that Nathanson was active in winning the alleged cooperation of one of the army officers now also standing trial for their part in the affair. The officer is also a resident of Shilo.

Nathanson is accused of murder or, alternatively, causing grievous bodily harm.

PUNISHING THE VICTIMS: THE CASE OF BEITA VILLAGE

If the travesty of law which passes for justice in the so called State of Israel as documented in this chapter is not horrendous enough in its own right, the mockery of civilized norms chronicled herein is compounded by the tendency of the Zionist authorities to punish the victims of Jewish settler terrorism rather than the perpetrators of the crimes.

An example of Israeli punishment of Palestinian victims of Jewish settler terrorists took place in Beita in April, 1988, in which two Palestinians and an Israeli girl were murdered in cold blood by a fanatic Israeli settler. Following is an account of the events at Beita, Israeli reaction and the gross punishment of an entire village for a crime in fact committed by a Jewish settler:

April 6, 1988: Lurid headlines splashed across the front pages of the world's newspapers, declaring that a young Israeli girl had been stoned to death by Palestinians while on a nature hike with her companions. Television footage showed a dozen or so hysterical settler youths being evacuated from the scene, followed quickly by the billowing clouds from dynamited houses as the Israeli army dispensed its justice."

In the surrounding villages, especially Hawwar, residents reported Israeli settlers were on a rampage: destroying cars, breaking the windows of houses, and terrorizing Palestinian women and children.

The Washington Times, April 8, 1988, published the following:

"Every house on the main road is in danger of attack now. They (the settlers) want to retaliate. They want to kill us, said Raja Salem of Hawawra. He had a swollen lip and a cut on his right cheek from an attack by settlers. The settlers humiliate us, but if we fight them, they will kill us, added Aly Ahmed, also of Hawawra."

It was only after the emotionally charged funeral of Tirza Porat and the subsequent march of 10, 000 armed settlers through the streets of Nablus, that the army revealed its findings: Tirzu Porat had been shot to death by her own guard, Romam Aldubi.

Thirty Palestinians were arrested, including Muniera Daoud, the sister of one of the victims, who was charged with assaulting Aldubi with a stone. Six residents of Beita were deported. No charges were brought against Aldubi for the shooting deaths of two unarmed Palestinians. (43)

THE FACTS OF THE CASE

Disaster struck Beita at 8.30 on Wednesday morning, April 6, 1988, when a group of sixteen hikers from the Israeli settlement of Elon Moreh, eamed out what seems, as the villagers told the story, to have been an organized mission, The fifteen and sixteen year old children were in the company of an Israeli "settler activist" named Romam Aldubi, twenty six, one of the founders of the settlers' Yeshiva at Joseph's tomb in Nablus. Last year, he led a group of young people into Balata refugee camp near Nablus, and assaulted residents in a shooting spree, which resulted in his being banned from the Nablus region for six months by the army.

The other guard, Menachem Ilan, age 55, was convicted in 1984 of destroying evidence and obstructing justice in connection with the killing of an eleven year old Arab girl by another Elon Moreh settler.

On this April morning, some of the villagers, mostly women and children, were tending to their crops about three kilometers from the center of town, near a small spring called Ein Rojan. Having experienced harassment by settlers in the past, they were very frightened when the hikers approached displaying two machine guns, carrying Israeli flags, and speaking in Hebrew. There was an angry exchange. Twenty year old Musa Saleh Mahtroud (identifiedelsewhere as Musa Bani Shamseh), a student at Al Najah University, told hikers to go away and leave them alone. Aldubi started shooting shortly after, and Musa was shot and killed.

As the villagers began to scream and cry, thirty year old Tayseer Saleh Khrawish, who had seen the events from ashort distance, slowly approached with his hands held out at his sides to indicate he had no aggressive intent. He tried to calm Aldubi, who seemed wildly excited and had already fired his gun repeatedly. Tayseer, who spoke fluent Hebrew, and grasped the inherent dangers of the situation, knew he must negotiate carefully in order to avoid a further catastrophe. Speaking slowly, he advanced about a meter to Aldubi; without waming Aldubi fired his M16 machine gun, shattering Tayseer's leg. This occurred about five minutes after the murder of Musa. At this point, some of the villagers ran to get the International Red Cross and the people. The rest of them surrounded the hikers and herded them toward the center of the village to hold them for the police to arrest.

Tensions were high as the hikers arrived at the center, but there was no overt reaction until, about five minutes later when the injured man, Tayseer, and the body of Musa were brought to the village center. These men were both relatives of Muniera Daoud.

When Muniera saw Aldubi's handiwork, she ran screaming at him and hit him with a stick. Musa's mother, Amni, also attacked him, but several older men pulled her back, warning that things could get much worse than they already were. A Red Cross ambulance arrived shortly afterwards and removed Tayseer and Musa's body from the area. At this time, the atmosphere was such that the Red Cross, anticipating the arrival of the police, did not deem it necessary to remove the hikers, but as they waited, other villagers began to throw sticks and stones at Aldubi.

Azam Hafed, a villager, stood in front of Aldubi; he is quoted as saying, "If you want to kill me, kill me along with the settlers." Many others spoke likewise, placing themselves between the hikers and the bereaved family. Aldubi now fired his gun again. The other armed settler, Menachem Ilan, was carrying an Uzi submachine gun but did not shoot.

In a later report, Menachem Ilan admitted that he did not open fire despite all the tension, "because I was too close to the children. I was afraid that I would hit one of them." He went on to say that at one point he ordered Aldubi to stop shooting because there was no longer any need, but Aldubi told him to keep quiet, and continued to spray the crowd with bullets. (Associated Press, 11 April, 1988).

Tirza Porat attempted to restrain Aldubi by grabbing his arm and telling him that what he was doing was terrible. At this point he shot and killed her.

Aldubi began to fire wildly, hitting Mohammad Awad Thiad in the abdomen and Hatem Fayez Yamek in the neck. Hatem died later that day. It was at this time that Bani Shamsa's sister managed to hit Aldubi on the head with a stone, knocking him unconscious.

Seeing no end to the bloodshed, the villagers rushed to Aldubi; his gun was taken and broken into pieces. Ilan was struck down and his gun was dismantled. Several of the young hikers were hit by stones intended for Aldubi, and some villagers now rushed them into a house. Other villagers protected the children, and got them medical care. One of the children protected was the daughter of Benny Katzover, a settler leader from Elon Moreh.

Many have said that a helicopter was overhead during this time, yet the nearby army post claims they were not alerted until the incident was over. The police, the media, and the Red Cross arrived and the latest round of victims were removed. The hikers were "rescued" by a TV crew, whose initial reports were to inflame an already tragic situation.

When the army arrived later, they announced a village curfew over the mosque loudspeakers, and ordered all men over the age of fourteen to collect at the local high school. During the repated interrogations, they were kicked and clubbed.

By now, the soldiers had begun searching all the houses. The homes were broken into, and food was dumped on the furniture. Everything breakable was smashed. Thirty people were detained. Over 300 youths fled from the village. One of them, Ossam Abdel Halim, age 15, was killed as he fled on Apri17th. His father was called to the school to identify him and when he assived, the soldiers were dancing around singing and clapping as if they were having a celebration.

Six houses were immediately blown up, and the act was filmed on Israeli television. Eight more houses were blown up two days later, after the preliminary army report, finding that Aldubi's gun had killed Porat, was released. One of the houses destroyed belonged to a family which had actively protected the children, including Benny Katzover's daughter.

Six young men from the village were expelled from the territories on April 19th. The charges against them included throwing stones at the settlers, and taking Aldubi's gun away from him.

Beita has been a closed military zone for quite some time, and even now there are times when the village is closed off to the world. Olive trees have been uprooted, and the International Red Cross has periodically been restricted from visiting the area. (44)

STATEMENTS BY ISRAELI LEADERS AND SETTLERS

The official Israeli response, following on the heels of the erroneous press accounts, was vociferous and unreasonable. High government officials and settlers alike demanded nothing less than the immediate obliteration of Beita. The Israeli press also played a significant role in further fanning the flames of public anger. The death of one Israeli settler, a tragic occurrence, was cited as justification for the dismemberment of the entire village and the dislocation of its inhabitants....

The following is a sample of the statements made by Israeli leaders and reported in the press.

"When an Arab village carried out a Pogrom on Israeli children, there's nothing to do but destroy the village, to wipe it out from the land of Israel." (Rabbi Eliezer Waldman, member of Knesset, Reuters, 7 April, 1988.)

"Beita must be erased! A place where such a detestable murder is committed cannot remain in existence.'' (Haim Druckman, member of Knesset, Associated Press, 8 April, 1988.)

Some settlers called for the entire village to be razed, others said that all participants should be expelled. "It was a collective doing, so there must be a collective punishment." (Settlers reported to Glenn Frankel, Washington Post, April 7, 1988.)

Rafael Eitan, head of Tsomet Movement and former Israeli Chief of Staff called for the immediate implementation of the transfer plan of Beita village and removing them to Lebanon. (Jerusalem Post, April 7, 1988).

"Beita does not exist in the map of Israel. A settlement should be built there and named Tirza Porat." (Minister of Religious Affairs Zevulan Hammer, Data Base Project, April 8, 1988.)

Benny Katzover, a settler leader, visited the village of Beita with journalist Zvi Gilat. Katzover's two daughters, Meira and Mevaseret, were rescued by one of the villagers during the confrontation.

"Destroy the entire village, " Katzover said. "Maybe leave the homes of those who didn't participate and transfer them to another site."

"By mistake they demolished the home of the person who saved your daughter's life."

"So mistakes happen." (45)

Jewish settlers have violently attacked Palestinians and vandalized their properties on the basis of false reports of Palestinian violence against Jews. The crimes committed against Beita village by the Israeli authorities and by Jewish settlers were one example. Another example was when on February 8, 1989 a Jewish settler, Albert Jerasi, a 38-year-old taxi driver, was burnt to death when his car exploded in flames. The New York Times of February 23, 1989 stated: "Jewish settlers, the army, police, the Prime Minister and the Israeli news services immediately attributed the incident to Palestinian attackers." (46) Jewish settlers went on a rampage and attacked Palestinians by shooting and beating them, injuring many. The settlers burnt Palestinian cars, attacked Palestinian homes in nearby villages, breaking their doors and windows and destroying furniture as a "revenge" for the death of the Israeli settler.

On February 9, 1989 the Hebrew language newspaper Hadashot stated that the death of the Jewish settler in the car was "tangible evidence of the escalation of the Intifada, " and that the incident was an example of killing simply for the sake of killing. (47) The Hebrew language newspaper Yediot Ahronot stated that "It is ironic and a bitter twist of fate that another Jew is killed in the occupied territories on the same day of the release of the American report which charges Israel with human rights violations." (48) Two weeks after the incident, the New York Times reported from Jerusalem: "After an invstigation, the police commissioner, David Kraus, announced on Tuesday night that 'the fire was caused as a result of a gas leak within the driver's cabin from a pipe that passed through it'"49

APPENDIX A

JEWISH TERRORIST ACTIVITIES 1979 1984

Source: The following lists most of the reported terrorist attacks by right wing fanatics and settlers against Palestinians in the occupied territories between March 1979 and March 1984. The list was originally published by Haolem Hazeh on 16 May 1984. It was subsequently translated from the Hebrew and published by Al Ittihad, 27 May, 1984 and Al Fajr, 1 June, 1984, pp. 8 9.

1. March 1979 Settlers attacked Halhoul, Hebrm district, and indiscriminately opened fire on Palestinian residents. Two young Palestinians were killed during the operation.

2. April 24, 1979 Settlers fmm Kisyat Arba uprooted hundreds of trees on land belonging to Hebron area villagers. Settlers also broke into houses and destroyed furniture.

3, June 1979 Settlers destroyed and damaged 27 vehicles in Halhoul.

4. June 2, 1980 Booby trapped bombs were planted in vehicles belonging to three mayors in the West Bank. Bassam Shaka'a, the mayor of Nablus, was injured and both legs were amputated. Karim Khalaf, the mayor of Ramallah, lost a foot and Ibrahim Tawil, the mayor of al-Bireh, miraculously escaped death. A Druze soldier was also blinded in the incident when he attempted to defuse the bomb in Tawil's car.

5. August 3, 1980 A bomb exploded outside the East Jerusalem office of the Arabic daily Al Fujr there was extensive damage to the facade of the building and to the area's electricity supply but no one was injured.

6. October 25, 1981 Unidentified people attempted to set fire to a car belonging to Hanna Siniora, the responsible editor of Al Fajr. A passerby discovered the fire.

7. June 1981 Yossi Dayan, an assistant to Rabbi Meir Kahane, leader of Kach, brought a parcel to Al-Fajr saying it was for Hanna Siniora. An employee refused to accept it and Dayan immediately ran off.

8. February 1, 1982 A grenade was hurled at the Da'na family house in Hebron. Their store was partially damaged.

9. March 1982 A group of settlers from Kiryat Arba attacked Beni Na'im village, Hebron district, and opened fire on Palestinian residents. The settlers killed one young man.

10. March 10, 1982 Settlers from Kiryat Arba threw a grenade at the house of a widow in Hebron.

11. March 17, 1982 Settlers opened fire at the house of a Tulkann resident. No injuries were reported.

12. March 19, 1982 Settlers opened fire at youths in Sinjil, Ramallah district, and killed Abdullah Sehwail and wounded two other persons.

13. March 21, 1982 Settlers from Beit El destroyed rear and front windows of 30 vehicles in al-Bireh.

14. March 21, 1982 Settlers opened fire at two buses owned by Palestinians in Ramallah.

15. March 21, 1982 Settlers opened fire at Arab vehicles in Batin.

16. March 23, 1982 Settlers kidnapped an Arab youth from Sinjil.

17. March 26, 1982 Dozens of vehicles in Ramallah were destroyed or damaged by settlers.

18. March 27, 1982 Settlers opened fire at Palestinian demonstrators in Halhoul and a Palestinian youth was killed.

19. March 27, 1982 Settlers attacked Taibeh village, Ramallah district, and broke into several houses in the village destroying furniture. Settlers also opened fire into the air.

20. April 11, 1982 An Israeli soldier belonging to an Israeli underground terror organization broke into al-Aqsa mosque and opened fire on people. He killed three Palestinians and wounded dozens of people.

21. April 24, 1982 Settlers burned tires of 100 vehicles in Nablus.

22. May 5, 1982 a 14-year-old girl was killed in Arroub refugee camp, Hebron district, when a settler opened fire on her. The settler claims his vehicle was stoned by demonstrators.

23. October 19, 1982 Settlers planted a bomb in a school in Hebron. The bomb was defused only moments before it would have exploded.

24. October 26, 1982 Settlers opened fire on Palestinian residents in Nablus and killed a 16-year-old youth and wounded others.

25. October 28, 1982 A bomb planted in Hussein Ben Ali School, in Hebron, exploded and two Palestinians were wounded. Ten other bombs were discovered in the playground.

26. January 10, 1983 Settlers riding in an ambulance fired into the garden of a Palestinian resident in Nablus. A bus and a building in the vicinity were damaged.

27. January 13, 1983 Settlers from Kiryat Arba destroyed four utility poles in Hebron.

28. February 1, 1983 Settlers opened fire at houses in Hebron.

29. February 1983 Unidentified people destroyed electricity pylons in Hebron, cutting off six Palestinian families.

30. February 26, 1983 A bomb near Qazzazin Mosque in Hebron exploded, wounding two persons.

31. February 26, 1983 Settlers opened fire on a family in Hebron and killed a four-year-old girl.

32. February 26, 1983 Nine pistol shots hit a house , belonging to the Ja'abari family in Hebron. Alia Ja'abari was wounded.

33. February 28, 1983 Yisrael Fox, 19, member of Kach movement, opened fire on an Arab vehicle near Nikim settlement, in Hebron.

34. February 28, 1983 A member of the Ja'abari family in Hebron notified the police about the disappearance of his son. His son was later found near Kiryat Arba. Settlers claimed they caught him throwing stones.

35. March 1, 1983 A Palestinian resident of Nablus announced settlers broke into Farouq School and opened fire into the air.

36. March 9, 1983 Settlers broke into Kalandia refugee camp, near Ramallah, and opened fire.

37. March 10, 1983 Settlers attempted to break into al-Aqsa Mosque.

38. March 11, 1983 Settlers opened fire in al-Bireh and wounded a 12-year-old boy.

39. March 13, 1983 Bir Zeit University announced three Israeli settlers detained and beat three students from the university.

40. March 13, 1983 An unidentified person opened fire at the house of Dura Mayor Mohammed Mousa Amr, damaging the house.

41. April 4, 1983 Fatmeh Salah Ibrahim Abu Mayaleh, 65, was stabbed in the face and body by students at a Jewish religious school in Aqbat Khaldieh in the Old City of Jerusalem.

42. April 4, 1983 A 14-year-old Palestinian boy from Hebron was wounded in the arm and another from Nablus was wounded in the back when settlers opened fire at them.

43. April 5, 1983 A settler from Kiryat Arba opened fire from his vehicle at people from Arroub refugee camp and wounded Mohammed Hassan Serhan, 18. 44. May 3, 1983 Settlers entered Beit Jala, Bethlehem district, and caused damage to 40 vehicles.

44. May 3, 1983 Settlers entered Beit Jala, Bethlehem district, and caused damage to 40 vehicles.

45. May 5, 1983 A group belonging to the "Defense Arm" claimed responsibility for burning vehicles in Halhoul.

46. May 21, 1983 A Jewish youth, 15, from Kiryat Arba was arrested on charges of puncturing tires of vehicles belonging to Palestinians and damaging a restaurant.

47. June 7, 1983 Collective retribution occurred in the market after the murder of Aharon Gross. Ninety percent of shops suffered partial damage and some were destroyed.

48. June 11, 1983 Settlers broke into Ibrahimi Mosque in Hebron and threatened Palestinian worshippers with their weapons.

49. June 26, 1983 Unidentified people destroyed an incomplete house near Kiryat Arba.

50. June 26, 1983 A massacre at Hebron University left three Palestinians dead and 40 wounded.

51. June 26, 1983 Settlers opened fire in the center of Nablus and killed a 20-year-old Palestinian woman and wounded another.

52. June 27, 1983 Armed settlers and soldiers opened fire at residents protesting the killings at Hebron University. One woman was killed and 33 persons were wounded.

53. July 31, 1983 Settlers destroyed olive trees in Mukhmas village near Ramallah. The settlers attacked Palestinian peasants who attempted to stop them.

54. August 1, 1983 The East Jerusalem office of al-Fajr Arabic newspaper was attacked by settlers, . Settlers threw Molotov cocktails at the news room. It was partially damaged but no one was injured.

55. August 5, 1983 Settlers demolished a house in Hebron.

56. August 5, 1983 Settlers attacked Bir Zeiit town and opened fire.

57. August 10, 1983 Three settlers kidnapped a resident from Biddo village. Ramallah district, and stole IS 360, 000.

58. August 15, 1983 Three vehicles from Gaza were stopped at a military checkpost. Money and jewelry were stolen.

59. August 18, 1983 Armed settlers uprooted vegetables in a field near Jerusalem.

60. August 31, 1983 Unidentified people opened fire in Silwan.

61. September 1, 1983 A fire was set in a school in Gaza where documents and furniture were burned. An Israeli expert was called but he did not go to the scene of the incident because it occurred on a Saturday.

62. September 3, 1983 A booby-trapped bomb in a television set was discovered at Tareq ben Ziad School, Hebron.

63. September 11, 1983 Settlers from Shilo broke into Karyot village and uprooted 820 olive trees. They claimed ownership of 20 dunums. Other settlers rampaged over 10 dunums in Shakat and Yasouq villages. One thousand olive trees were uprooted.

64. September 15, 1983 More than 10 youngsters from Arroub refugee camp were beaten by settlers.

65. October 3, 1983 Residents of Dheisheh refugee camp announced that settlers backed by Israeli officers attacked buildings belonging to nationalists in the camp and attempted to set fire to them.

66. October 5, 1983 Yousef Shabani from Silwan was stabbed to death by an Israeli.

67. October 9, 1983 Four settlers from Kiryat Arba were accused of illegally demolishing an incomplete building.

68. October 12, 1983 Settlers from Kiryat Arba broke into Ibrahimi Mosque in Hebron without taking off their shoes. This contradicts Islamic principles. They repeated the act for three days.

69. October 15, 1983 The body of Mohammed Abd al-Ghafer from Hebron was found one week after his disappearance.

70. October 27, 1983 Settlers attacked Jalazon refugee camp, Ramallah district, in revenge for stone throwing. Similar attacks were reported over two days in Jalazon and Bir Zeit.

71. October 30, 1983 Yeshiva students in the Old City of Jerusalem harassed Mousa Abu Khalis to force him and his 3-member family to leave their house.

72. November 2, 1983 Four thousand dunums of olive trees were damaged by settlers in the Nablus area. Settlers refused to permit fire fighting equipment to get to the area.

73. November 6, 1983 Unidentified people destroyed windows of 16 cars belonging to residents of the village of Silwan.

74. November 9, 1983 Settlers from Kiryat Arba broke into Tareq Ben Ziad School in Hebron and indiscriminately opened fire. Students forced them back by throwing stones. Settlers arrested the school principal. He was released later after he had been beaten by settlers.

75. November 21, 1983 Settlers in Arab clothes broke into the Dheisheh refugee camp and opened fire on residents. They wounded three persons.

76. November 27, 1983 Settlers blocked the main road leading to Halhoul and threw bottles at residents' houses.

77. November 30 1983 Settlers attacked two guards at Najah University in Nablus.

78. December 1, 1983 The body of a Palestinian resident of the Nablus area was found.

79. December 2, 1983 Yahya Neman and his father from the Old City of Jerusalem were beaten by students of the Birkat Avraham Yeshiva in the Muslim quarter.

80. December 3, 1983 Settlers claiming they were dispersing demonstrators broke intoaschoolat Balatarefugee camp in Nablus and arrested students. They took them to the military governorate in Nablus.

81. December 7, 1983 A four kilogram bomb, made in Israel, was found in the vegetable market in Nablus.

82. December 9, 1983 Settlers opened fire at passersby in the Old City of Nablus and killed 11 year old Aisheh Adnan Bahash and wounded her nine year old sister and three other persons.

83. December 9, 1983 A time-bomb was discovered at the entrance of the Franciscan Church near Damascus Gate in Jerusalem.

84. December 9, 1983 A booby-trapped bomb was discovered near the entrance of the Greek Orthodox Church in Jerusalem. The bomb was defused without causing injuries.

85. December 9, 1983 A bomb was discovered near a nunnery in Jerusalem.

86. December 9, 1983 A bomb was defused in a mosque in Beit Safafa, near Jerusalem.

87. December 9, 1983 Three time bombs were discovered in a car park in the Jewish Quarter in Jerusalem. Police sources believe Jewish extremists hid them.

88. December 12, 1983 Three time-bombs were discovered in a car park in the Jewish Quarter in Jerusalem. One exploded and damaged a house belonging to Fatmeh Shoshi.

89. December 13, 1983 Explosive device was discovered in a boys' school in Dura, Hebron district.

90. December 18, 1983 A bomb, planted by settlers. exploded in Bethlehem.

91. December 20, 1983 A bomb exploded in a mosque in Azzariya and wounded an Imam.

92. December 20, 1983 A bomb exploded at the Greek Orthodox Church in Ras al-Amoud and a nun was wounded.

93. December 21, 1983 An attempt was made to destroy vehicles parked near the Rockefeller Museum in Jerusalem.

94. December 26, 1983 A bomb was discovered in Aziz Shahin Girls School in Ramallah.

95. December 28, 1983 Settlers attacked Um Safa village.

96. December 28, 1983 Two bombs were discovered in two mosques in Hebron. "Terror Against Terror" claimed responsibility.

97. January 5, 1984 The Anglican school in Jerusalem was arsoned.

98. January 8, 1984 A burning tire was thrown at Sa'ad al-Din Mosque in Nablus.

99. January 9, 1984 Settlers smashed windows of 15 vehicles belonging to Palestinians in Ramallah. One person was attacked and hospitalized.

100. January 10, 1984 A group of settlers smashed windows of six vehicles in Beitin and Ramallah.

101. January 15, 1984 A bomb exploded at the Russian Monastery in Ain Karem, near Jerusalem.

102. January 19, 1984 Unidentified people set fire to offices of Committee for Local Affairs in Dheisheh camp, near Bethlehem.

103. January 22, 1984 A bomb exploded near Nebi Samuel Mosque, north of Jerusalem.

104. January 27, 1984 An attempt was made to blow up al-Aqsa Mosque with 29 kilograms of explosives.

105. January 27, 1984 Settlers prevented Palestinian peasants from cultivating 700 dunums of land in Hebron district.

106. February 5, 1984 The body of 17 year old Wajdi Fuad Rashid was discovered in a field after he had been missing for a week.

107. February 11, 1984 Settlers stoned Arab vehicles in Dheisheh camp and smashed windows. They left the camp under the protection of Israeli soldiers.

108. February 21, 1984 Residents from Bani Hussein village in Tulkarm filed a complaint with the military authorities and police against settlers of Netivim settlement who threatened to use force against them if they did not leave their land. The settlers damagedcrops in 164 dunums, despite an order from the Nablus Magistrates Court preventing settlers from entering theland.

109. February 26, 1984 Settlers opened fire at a French monk from Saint John's Monastery, south of Jerusalem.

110. February 29, 1984 A bomb exploded in Palestine Square, Gaza.

111. March 4 1984 A bombexploded near the Hospice Hospital in Jerusalem.

112. March 4, 1984 Six Palestinian workers were wounded after a bus was burned near Ramallah.

113. March 7, 1984 A bomb was discovered inside a girls' school in Ramallah.

114. March 8, 1984 A bomb was discovered in a school in Kalandia refugee camp.

115. March 10, 1984 Three bombs were discovered in a school in Ramallah and were defused.

116. March 11, 1984 Two settlers broke into shops in Nablus and threatened shopkeepers. They said they intended to kill two people in Nablus.

117. March 13, 1984 Two bombs were discovered in the center of Ramallah. Two weeks before. two similar bombs were discovered in the same square.

118. March 16, 1984 Two bombs were discovered at the entrance of Sinjil village, Ramallah district.

119 . March 17, 1984 Settlers erected prefabricated houses on land owned by Palestinians in Hebron. Settlers ignored an order nisi from the Israeli High Court. 120. March 30, 1984 Eighteen vehicles were wrecked by settlers in the Old City of Nablus.

121. April 1, 1984 A bomb was discovered near the house of Mustafa Yaqoub in Husan village. The incident was attributed to a Jewish gang.

122. April 6, 1984 An Israeli made bomb damaged a vehicle belonging to Sheikh Ali Taziz, chairperson of the Chamber of Commerce in East Jerusalem.

123. April 9, 1984 A bomb planted by settlers a year before was discovered. One settler defused the bomb and hid it.

124. April 16, 1984 A lecturer at Bir Zeit University was kidnapped from his house in Ramallah. After two weeks, his body was discovered in fields near Latrun, Ramallah district. There is no confirmation made by settlers.

 

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Encyclopedia of the Palestine Problem
By Issa Nakhleh

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