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Encyclopedia of the Palestine Problem


The Ashkenazi Jews who lived in Russian and Central Eastern Europe and later on migrated to Western and Southern Europe, are of Khazar origin and were converted to Judaism in the 9th century A.D. The Khazar Jews have no ethnic or historical connection with Palestine. The Ashkenazi Jews who migrated to Palestine during the British Mandate and who committed the crime of genocide against the Palestinian people are descendants of the Khazars. The Jewish Encyclopaedia refers to the Khazars and their conversion to Judaism:

A people of Turkish origin whose life and history are interwoven with the very beginnings of the history of the Jews of Russia. The kingdom of the Khazars was firmly established in most of South Russia long before the foundation of the Russian monarchy by the Varangians (855) ... Driven onward by the nomadic tribes of the steppes and by their own desire for plunder and revenge, they made frequent invasions into Armenia ...

In the second half of the sixth century the Khazars moved westward. They established themselves in the territory bounded by the Sea of Azov, the Don and the lower Volga, the Caspian Sea, and the northern Caucasus ... In 679 the Khazars subjugated the Bulgars and extended their sway further west between the Don and the Dnieper, as far as the head-waters of Donetz ... It was probably about that time that the Khaghan (Bulan) of the Khazars and his grandees, together with a large number of his heathen people, embraced the Jewish religion ...

It was one of the successors of Bulan, named Obadiah, who regenerated the kingdom and strengthened the Jewish religion. He invited Jewish scholars to settle in his dominions, and founded synagogues and schools. The people were instructed in the Bible. Mishnah, and Talmud ...

From the work Kitah al-Buldan written about the ninth century, it appears as if all the Khazars were Jews and that they had been converted to Judaism only a short time before that book was written ... It may be assumed that in the ninth century many Khazar heathens became Jews, owing to the religious zeal of King Obadiah. "Such a conversion in great masses says Chwolson (Izvyestiya o Khazarakh, p. 58), "may have been the reason for the embassy of Christians from the land of the Khazars to th Byzantine emperor Michael ...

The Jewish population in theentire domain of the Khazars, in the period between the seventh and tenth centuries, must have been considerable.,

The Russians invaded the trans-Caucasian country in 944 ... This seems to have been the beginning of the downfall of the Khazar kingdom ... The Russian prince Sviatoslav made war upon the Khazars ...( c. 974) the Russians conquered all the Khazarian territory east of the Sea of Azov. Only the Crimean territory of the Khazars remained in their possession until 101 6, when they were dispossessed by a joint expedition of Russians and Byzantines ... Many were sent as prisoners of war to Kiev, where a Khazar community had long existed ... Some wentto Hungary, but the great massof the people remained in their native country. Many members of the Khazarian royal family emigrated to Spain... (252)

Professor Graetz describes the Khazar kingdom as follows:

The heathen king of a barbarian people, living in the north, together with all his court, adopted the Jewish religion ... Their kings, who bore the title of Khakhan or Khaghan, had led these warlike sons of the steppe from victory to victory ...

It is possible that the circumstances under which the Khazarsembraced Judaism have beenembellished by legend, but the fact itself is too definitely proved on all sides to allow any doubt as to its reality. Besides Bulan, the nobles of his kingdom, numbering nearly four thousand, adopted the Jewish religion. Little by little it made its way among the people, so that most of the inhabitants of the towns of the Khazar kingdom were Jews ... At first the Judaism of the Khazars must have been rather superficial, and could have had but a little influence on their mind and manners...

A successor of Bulan, who bore the Hebrew name of Obadiah, was the first to make serious efforts to further the Jewish religion. He invited Jewish sages to settle in his dominions, rewarded them royally, founded synagogues and schools. caused instruction to be given to himself and his people in the Bible and the Talmud, and introduced a divine service modeled on that of the ancient communities ... After Obadiah came a long series of Jewish Khaghans, for according to a fundamental law of the state only Jewish rulers were permitted to ascend the throne... (253)

According to Dr. A. N. Poliak. Professor of Mediaeval Jewish History at Tel Aviv University, the descendants of the Khazars - "those who stayed where they were, those who emigrated to the United States and to other countries, and those who went to Israel — constitute now the large majority of world Jewry." (254)

The physiological differences between the Ashkenazim, who are mainly of Turkic Khazar origin, and the Sephardim, who are mainly of Semitic Palestinian origin, has been confirmed by scientific evidence:

By and large, the Sephardim are dolichocephalie (longheaded), the Ashkenazim brachycephalic (broadheaded) ... The statistics relating to other physical features also speak against racial unity ... The hardest evidence to date comes from classification by blood groups. (255)

Thus both historical and physiological evidence negate any historical claims to being of Palestinian origin to the European Jews in Israel and to the majority of Jews in the world.


Muslim rule over Palestine was interrupted by the rule of the Christian Crusaders, which lasted from 1099 to 1187, when the forces of Saladin captured Jerusalem. Crusader activity in Palestine lasted another century before it was extirpated by Islam. (256)

During this period the Jews in Palestine dwindled to a minute presence, and "in 1170 Benjamin of Tudela found only 1,500 Jews in the entire country." (257) Unfortunately, part of the cause of this infinitesimal presence was the massacres inflicted by the Crusaders. On July 15, 1099, when Godfrey of Bouillon, after many attempts had taken the city of Jerusalem and massacred the Muslims, the crusaders drove the Jews into a synagogue, set fire to it, and burnt all within its walls. (258)

The Crusaders softened, however, and Professor Graetz states:

The Jews were also in favor at the petty courts of the Christian princes of Palestine, and a Christian bishop complained that owing to the influence of their wives, the princes placed greater confidence in Jewish, Samaritan and Saracen physicians than in Latin (that is, Christian) ones. Probably the reason was because the latter were quacks. (259)

But Professor Graetz describes the level of Jewish life at that time in Palestine:

The Jewish inhabitants of Judaea vegetated rather than lived; not even the study of the Talmud was cultivated by them. (260)


From 1260 to 15 17 Palestine was ruled by the Muslim Mameluke Sultans of Egypt. "The rule of the Mamelukes was anarchic with frequent revolutions and civil wars; their only redeeming feature was a love of arts, evidenced by the splendid monuments erected by them in Palestine. (261)

In 1516 the Ottoman Turks occupied Palestine, and the modem history of Palestine began. (262)


1. The Canaanites

The Canaanite kingdoms existed from 7,000 B.C. until circa 1,000 B.C. There were at least 31 Canaanite kingdoms. These kingdoms were either independent states or vassal states of the Egyptians, Hyksos or Hittites during these 6,000 years. The Canaanite religion survived in Palestine until the 4th century A.D., when the pagan Canaanites converted to Christianity. The Canaanites always lived in the land of Canaan and formed the base of the population of the land, although conquering races intermarried and mingled with them.

2. The Egyptians

The Egyptians frequently conquered the land of Canaan. Some Egyptians came to live in the land as officials and merchants and intermarried with the Canaanites. They ruled the land of Canaan from circa 2,500 B.C. until 1700 B.C. and from 1550 B.C. until 1200 B.C. The Egyptians maintained vassal Canaanite states.

3. The Hyksos

The Hyksos invaded the land of Canaan from 1710 B.C. to 1550 B.C. During this period they were absorbed through intermarriage into the Canaanite population of the land of Canaan.

4. The Hittites

The Hittites invaded the land of Canaan from 1350 B.C. to 1290 B.C. Most were absorbed by the Canaanites, especially in the kingdom of Hebron, but some Hittites retained their identity until circa 1,000 B.C.

5. The Philistines

The Philistines were of Aegean origin. They came to the land of Canaan circa 1250 B.C. They comprised five major kingdoms and occupied the southern part of the land of Canaan from Lydda until the Egyptian frontier. There states were either independent or vassal states until at least 7 1 1 B.C. They never left the country, intermarrying and mingling with the other nations in the land. Philistine family lineage was an important factor even in the era of the Herodians circa the time of Christ.

6. The Israelites

The Israelite tribes invaded the land of Canaan in the 13th century B.C. They conquered a number of Canaanite kingdoms and settled in the hills of the land of Canaan. They intermarried and mingled with the existing population.

From 1037 B.C. to 1018 B.C. Saul ruled a small Israelite kingdom. The population comprised both Israelites and Canaanites, although the official religion was the worship of Jehovah.

King David ruled from 1018- 1011 in Judah and ruled from 1011 to 978 B.C. in Israel and Judah. His kingdom was built on alliances between Israelites, Canaanites, and neighboring Moabites, as well as some Hittites and Philistines. The population was mixed in races and religions. His capital was the Canaanite city, Jebus, and he changed its name to Jerusalem.

King Solomon ruled from 978 B.C. to 938 B.C. over a large kingdom which included Canaanites, Israelites, Philistines, Moabites, and Ammonites. The religion of all of these nations were official religions of the kingdom. Solomon built the first Temple for Jehovah in 975 B.C., but he also built temples for other religions as well. During Solomon's reign Ashtoreth, Baal, Chemosh, Milcom and other deities were worshipped alongside of Jehovah.

After his death Solomon's kingdom was divided into two states, the kingdom Israel in the North, and the kingdom of Judah in the South.

The kingdom of Israel lasted from 927 B.C. until 722 B.C. The majority of its kings and the majority of its population followed Canaanite religions. It was conquered by the Assyrians in 722 B.C. Many of its inhabitants were exiled to Assyria./ep

The kingdom of Judah lasted from 927 B.C. until 586 B.C. Some of its kings worshipped Jehovah and some followed Canaanite religions. The population was a mixed blend of Israelites of the tribe of Judah, Canaanite Jebusites, and Philistines. Jerusalem was its capital.

With the fall of the kingdom of Judah, the Israelite influence in the land diminished, except for a period under Persian rule from 458 B.C. to 433 B.C.; 167 B.C. to 161 B.C. under the Maccabees; 18 A.D. to 37 A.D. under the high priest Caiaphas subservient to the Romans, and from 614 A.D. to circa 620 A.D. subservient to the Persians.

The Israelite tribes were gradually absorbed by the indigenous Canaanite population and others.

7. The Edomites

The Edomites were the descendants of Esau, and they were mortal enemies of the Israelites. They followed a Canaanite religion. Over many centuries they moved to the southern part of the country, where they had an important kingdom which was almost constantly at war with the Southern Kingdom. When Jerusalem fell to the Babylonians, they participated in looting the city. Circa 120 B.C. the Edomites, who were also called Idumeans, were forcibly converted to Judaism, but their old religion was also still followed, explaining why the Edomite Herod not only expanded the temple in Jerusalem, but also built many pagan temples. Most of the Edomites converted to Christianity, and Jews sometimes referred to Palestinian Christians as "sons of Edom," just as they referred to Muslim Arabs as "sons of Ishmael."

8. The Assyrians

The Assyrians ruled the northern part of the land of Canaan from their conquest of the kingdom of Israel in 722 B.C. and the Philistine kingdom of Ashdod in 711 B.C. until they were conquered by the Babylonians in 605 B.C. The Assyrians not only provided some settlers to the country, but they also brought with them many other captive peoples who settled on the land and intermarried with the indigenous population.

9. The Babylonians

The Babylonians ruled the country from 586 B.C. to 538 B.C. They did not leave many settlers but carried off to Babylonia many worshippers of Jehovah and Canaanite deities. Some of these exiles later returned. Many of them had intermarried with Babylonians. Those who settled permanently in Babylonia and were absorbed into that country were the worshippers of Jehovah, who founded the Jewish religion and the Talmud in Babylon.

10. The Persians

The Persians conquered Babylonia and the land of Canaan from 538 B.C. to 330 B.C. Some Persians intermarried with the indigenous population. From 614 A.D. to 628 A.D. the Persians again ruled the country. During both periods the Israelites attempted to secure Persian backing for a state of their own which, however, was not established.

11. The Greeks

The Greeks ruled the land of Canaan from 330 B.C. until 70 B.C. From 323 B.C. to 200 B.C. this rule was exercised from Egypt by the Ptolemies and from 200 B.C. until 70 B.C. from Syria by the Seleucids. Many Greek colonists settled in the country, maintaining entire cities, such as the Decapolis, which lasted until the time of Christ. In addition to intermarriage with the indigenous population, the Greeks exerted a profound Hellenizing influence on all the peoples of the country.

12. The Armenians

The Armenians ruled the land of Canaan for a brief period from 70 B.C. to 63 B.C.

13. The Romans

The Romans ruled the country from 63 B.C. until 6 14 A.D. and from 628 A.D. until 638 A.D. The Romans named the land of Canaan "Palestine," a word derived from the Philistines. The long period of Roman rule resulted in the Christianization of Palestine and the demise of the old Canaanite religions in the 4th century A.D. Roman legionnaires, officials and merchants left their descendants in Palestine. During the Roman era Palestinian Jews and pagans became the first Christians, and Christian Palestinians remain a significant part of the population of Palestine today.

14. The Arabs

The Arabs conquered Palestine in 638 A.D. and exercised a profound influence on the country. The indigenous population of Palestine at that time adopted the Arabic language, and many became Muslims. Arab rule over Palestine lasted from 638 to 1085 A.D. and from 129 1 to 15 17 A.D. under the Mamelukes of Egypt. Even during the Crusaders' era from 1099 to 1291 A.D. parts of Palestine remained under Arab rule.

15. The Seljuk Turks

The Seljuk Turks ruled Palestine briefly, from 1085 to 1099 A.D.

16. The Crusaders

The Christian Crusaders ruled varying parts of Palestine from 1099 to 1291 A.D. Saladin defeated the Crusaders and relurned Palestine to Arab rule. Although Arab rule and culture completely replaced that of the Crusaders, some Palestinians can still claim descent from the Crusaders today.

17. The Ottoman Turks

The Ottoman Turks ruled Palestine from 1517 to 1918 A.D., when they were replaced by the British Mandate. During Turkish rule different peoples settled in Palestine, often intermarrying with the indigenous population.

18. Others

The neighboring peoples of Palestine, through normal relations resulting from their proximity, also contributed to the Palestinian genetic pool. These neighbors include the Phoenicians of Lebanon, the Arameans of Syria, and the Ammonites, Moabites and Nabatean Arabs of Jordan.

Palestine is also at the crossroads of Europe, Africa and Asia, and is the Holy Land of three religions. Thus many peoples of diverse nations have come to Palestine for commercial or pilgrimage reasons at different times, contributing their genes to the indigenous population.

Throughout all the millennia since 7,000 B.C., the original Canaanite population always absorbed the conquerors of the land of Canaan into its own stock, with the result that the Palestinian Arabs of today are the cohesion of all of these races.


The above historical, archaeological, religious, linguistic and ethnographic evidence proves beyond doubt that the Zionist historical claims to Palestine are unfounded for the following reasons:

1. Palestine was known as the land of Canaan. It was inhabited by Canaanite tribes which had migrated from the Arabian Peninsula and Mesopotamia. They were living in at least 31 kingdoms throughout the country. They were a well-developed people. It was the Romans who called the land Palestina, a word derived from the Philistines, who were of Aegean origin and entered the land of Canaan in the 13th century B.C. They never left the country and had a great influence on its history.

2. The Israelites entered the land of Canaan as invaders in the 13th century B.C. They conquered parts of the country, mainly in the mountainous regions in the areas known today as Judaea and Samaria. They lived side by side with the Canaanite tribes, intermarried with them and were greatly affected by them, because the Canaanites were more advanced economically, culturally and socially.

3. The Israelites established a kingdom, first under King Saul, later on under King David and King Solomon. This kingdom was a multinational and multireligious state. Its population was composed of Canaanites, Israelites and Philistines. The people worshipped Jehovah and many Canaanite deities. This kingdom was not at all times independent, but was a satellite at different times to the Egyptians, the Syrians and the Assyrians.

During the reign of King Solomon the kingdom was divided into the kingdom of Israel in the north and the kingdom of Judah in the south.

The kingdom of Israel, which was also known as the kingdom of Samaria, was conquered by the Assyrians in 722 B.C. The Assyrians brought many captive peoples and took many of the inhabitants of the kingdom to Assyria.

The Babylonians conquered both the kingdom of Israel and the kingdom of Judah in 586 B.C. and transferred many thousands of the population of the two kingdoms to Babylonia. Some of these people who were transferred returned to Judah and Samaria, but the bulk of those who were transferred settled permanently in Babylonia and intermarried with the indigenous people of Babylonia.

The kingdom of Israel barely lasted two hundred years, and the kingdom of Judah only lasted for three hundred years.

4. The land of Canaan was conquered by the Greeks in 330 B.C. The Greeks settled in the country and greatly influenced the population culturally, religiously and socially. The Greek language became the dominant language in the country, although the bulk of the population were speaking Aramaic, which is a derivative of the Arab language. Aramaic, in different dialects, was spoken in the countries known today as Syria, Lebanon and Palestine.

5. The Romans conquered the land of Canaan in 63 B.C. They named the country Palestine and they named the provinces Judea, Samaria, Galilee, Philistia, and Idumea. During the Roman era the people still were speaking Aramaic and Greek. The Hebrew language, which was only a dialect of the Canaanitish language, was only used by scribes, but never by the Israelites, the Canaanites and the Philistines. During the Roman era the majority of the Palestinian population, whether Canaanites, Israelites or Edomites, adopted Christianity. The Apostles were of Israelite and Canaanite origin. At the beginning of Christianity, the followers of Jehovah and Canaanite deities persecuted the Christian minority. When the Christians became a majority, and when Christianity became the official religion of the Roman Empire, the Christians persecuted Jews and pagans who did not adopt their religion. Thereafter, many of the Jews migrated to neighboring countries, which are known today as Lebanon, Syria, Egypt, Iraq, Arabia, and North Africa. Overall, Palestine from the 4th century until the 19th century had very few Jews.

6. The Old Testament, called by Jews the Torah, and the Talmud, were developed mostly in Babylonia. The Palestinian Talmud was partly developed in Palestine and partly in Babylonia. It can be stated that the tenets of Judaism were developed outside of Palestine. Neither the Old Testament nor the Talmud has any exclusive connection with Palestine, and both have more ties with Babylonia than with the land of Canaan, or Palestine. Furthermore, after the 13th century A.D. the center of Talmudic Judaism was transferred to the non-Semitic Khazar converts to Judaism of Eastern and Central Europe.

7. The Zionist Jews who invaded Palestine and set up the State of Israel in 1948 were Ashkenazi Jews. The Jews of today are either Ashkenazi or Sephardi. The Ashkenazi Jews are not Semitic, but are a people of Turkish origin who were living in the kingdom of the Khazars and had converted to Judaism by the 9th century A.D. The king, nobles and members of the government and the great majority of the population adopted Judaism. The Jewish population in the domain of the Khazars between the seventh and tenth centuries was very considerable. When the Russians invaded the kingdom of the Khazars, the Khazar Jews spread throughout Russia and Central and Eastern Europe. It could be safely stated, according to authorities on the subject, that 90% of the Jews of today are Ashkenazim of Khazar origin, that they are not Semitic, and that their ancestors have never had any connection with Palestine whatsoever. The Sephardi Jews who were living in Muslim countries east of Tunisia are Semitic and their ancient ancestors had a connection to Palestine. The Jews of the Maghreb are mostly Berbers who adopted Judaism. They are not Semites, and their ancestors had no connection with Palestine. The Jews of Spain were mostly descendants of Berber Jews who migrated to Andalusia during the Arab domination of Spain.

8. The Palestinians of today, who call themselves Arabs, are Muslims and Christians. They are the descendants of all the races and nations which have lived in and conquered Palestine from the time of the Canaanites until the British occupation of Palestine in 19 18. They are a cohesion of all of those races. The Christians among them are descendants of the first Christians, who adopted Christianity at the time of Jesus and his Apostles. The Muslims are those who were either Christians or pagans who adopted Islam after the Arab conquest of Palestine in the 7th century A.D.

For the above reasons. it can be seen that Zionist claims to Palestine cannot be justified on historical, ethnic, legal, or religious grounds, and that therefore Zionist claims are unfounded.


1. James Mellaart, Earliest Civilizations of the Near East (London: Thames and Hudson, 1965).

2. H. Graetz, The History of the Jews (Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society of America, 1891), volume 1, p. 3.

3. Genesis 15: 19-21,

4. Encyclopaedia of Jewish History (New York: Facts on File Publ., 1986), p. 23.

5. Jerome Murphy-O'Connor, The Holy-Land (New York: Oxford University Press, 19861, p. 96.

6. Encyclopaedia of Jewish History, p. 22.

7. Who's Who in the Bible (New York: Bonanza Books, 1980). p. 57.

8. Michael Avi-Yonah, et al, Israel (Jerusalem: Universitas, 19611, p. 24.

9. Encyclopaedia of Jewish History, p. 209

10. Exodus 12:38.

11. Who's Who in the Bible, p. 209.

12. Joshua 12:9-24.

13. Joshua 8:25-29.

14. Joshua 6:21.

15. Dan Jacobson, The Story of the Stories (New York: Harper and Row, 19821, p. 30.

16. Joshua 13:1.

17. William S. Jenks, The Explanatory Bible Atlas (1778), p. 34.

18. Ibid.

20. Dame Kathleen Kenyon, Archaeology in the Holy Land (Tonbridge: Ernest Benn, 1960).ep/

21. Yigael Yadin, Hazor (London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson, 1975).

22. Encyclopaedia Judaica (New York: Macmillan, 197 I), volume 3, pp. 100-101.

23. Graetz, History of the Jews, volume 1 , pp. 54-55.

24. Encyclopaedia Judaica, volume 13, p. 399.

25. William Smith, Smith's Bible Dictionary (New York: Jove, 1977). p. 526.

26. R. J. Werblowsky and Geoffrey Wigoder, The Encyclopaedia of the Jewish Religion (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1965), p. 300.

27. Encyclopaedia Judaica volume 13, p. 399.

28. Joseph Rymer, The New Illustrated Bible Atlas (London: Quintet Publ., 1985), p. 26.

29. Judges 14:1-3.

30. Nehemiah 13:23-24.

31. Encyclopaedia of Jewish History, p. 27.

32. Ibid.

33. History of the Jews, volume 1, p. 83.

34. Ibid., p. 94.

35. Smith's Bible Dictionary, p. 610.

36. David Polish, Israel — Nation and People (Ktav Publ. House, 1975 j, p. 129.

37. Th. C. Vriezen. The Religion of Ancient Israel (Philadelphia: Westminster. 1963), p. 160.

38. Smith's Bible Dictionary, p. 133.

39. Ibid p. 13./pe/

40. Ruth 1 :4.

41. Encyclopaedia Judaica, volume 10, p. 6.

42. Who's Who in the Bible, p. 254.

43. Joshua 15:51.

44. Smith's Bible Dictionary, p. 178.

45. Ibid, p. 254.

46. 2 Samuel 24:18-24.

47. Joshua 15:63.

48. Encyclopaedia Judaica, volume 9, pp. 1307-1308.

49. Smith's Bible Dictionary, p. 137.

50. /hid., p. 682.

51. 1 King 11:7.

52. Ibid., 11:3.

53. Mina C. Klein and H. Arthur Klein, Israel, Land of the Jews (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill Co., 1972), p. 53.

54. Ibid., pp. 53-54.

55. Who's Who in the Bible, p. 290.

56. Smith's Bible Dictionary, p. 658.

57. Ibid.

58. Jacob S. Golum, In the Days of the First Temple (Cincinnati: Union of American Hebrew Coqregutions, 1931), p. 30.

59. Ibid.

60. Smith's Bible Dictionary, p. 570.

61. 1 Kings 14:9.

62. Who's Who in the Bible, pp. 205-206.

63. Ibid., p. 291.

64. Ibid., p. 63.

65. Ibid., p. 107.

66. Ibid., p. 394.

67. lbid., p. 307.

68. lbid., p. 308.

69. Andre Parrot, Samaria (New York: Philosophical Library, 1958)- p. 23.

70. Who's Who in the Bible, p. 40.

71. 1 Kings 16:32.

72. Parrot, Samaria, p. 26.

73. Who's Who in the Bible, p. 44.

74. Ibid., p. 195.

75. lbid. p. 196.

76. lbid., p. 188.

77. lbid., p. 215.

78. Parrot, pp. 44-45.

79. Amos 5:26.

80. Who's Who in the Bible, p. 206.

8 1. lhid., p. 345.

82. Ibid., p. 260.

83. lhid., p. 312.

84. Ibid., p. 311.

85. Ibid., pp. 311-312.

86. Ibid., p. 159.

87. The Encyclopaedia of the Jewish Religion, p. 192.

88. Ibid., p. WO.

89. Ibid.

90. Ibid.

91. Graetz, volume I, p. 265.

92. 1 Kings 14:23.

93. Who's Who in the Bible, p. 25.

94. Graetz, volume I, p. 189.

95. Ibid.

96. Who's Who in the Bible, p. 56.

97. Who's Who in the Bible, p. 193.

98. Ibid.

99. Ibid.. p. 192.

100. Ibid.

101. Graetz, volume 1, p. 2 12.

102. Who's Who in the Bible, p. 44.

103. Graetz, volume 1, p. 214.

104. Ibid.

105. Who's Who in the Bible, p. 58.

106. Graetz, volume 1, p. 220.

107. Smith's Bible Dictionary, p. 300.

108. Who's Who in the Bible, p. 48.

109. Ibid.

110. 2 Kings 14:2.

111. Ibid. 15:2.

112. Graetz, volume 1, p. 245.

113. Ibid.

114. Who's Who in the Bible, p. 244.

115. Graetz, volume 1, p. 250.

116. 2 Kings 16:4.

117. Graetz, p. 260.

118. Who's Who in the Bible, p. 44.

119. Graetz, volume 1, p. 268.

120. Ibid.

121. Who's Who in the Bible, p. 258.

122. The Encyclopaedia of the Jewish Religion, p. 204.

123. 2 Kings 12:21.

124. Who's Who in the Bible, p. 50.

125. 2 Kings 22:17.

126. Graetz, p. 288.

127. Ibid.

128. Who's Who in the Bible. p. 244.

129. Ibid., p. 188.

30. Ibid., p. 190.

13 1. Graetz, volume 1, p. 300.

132. Who's Who in the Bible, p. 189.

133. Graetz, volume 1, p. 306.

134. Ibid., p. 307.

135. Who's Who in the Bible, p. 388.

136. Graetz, p. 3 13.

137. Jeremiah 7:9.

138. Who's Who in the Bible, p. 388.

39. Ezekiel 16:3.

140. Arthur Koestler, The Thirteenth Tribe (New York: Popular Library, 1976), pp. 235-236.

141. Harry E. Wedeck, A Treasury of Witchcraft (Secaucus, N.J.: Citadel Press, 1975), p. 2 1 1.

142. Graetz, volume 1, p. 332.

143. Ibid., p. 336.

144. lbid., p. 352.

145. Jacob Neusner, "Zionism and Judaism," New York City Tribune, February 12, 1988, p. 12.

146. Ibid.

147. Dan Jacobson, The Story of the Stones, pp. 134- 135.

148. Richard Elliot Friedman, Who Wrote the Bible? (New York: Summit Books, 19871, p. 156.

149. Graetz, volume 1, p. 360.

150. Ibid.

151. Who's Who in the Bible, p. 296.

152. The Encyclopaedia of the Jewish Religion, p. 140.

153. Encyclopaedia Judaica, volume 5, p. 1339.

154. Nehemiah 13:27-28.

155. John M. Allegro, The Chosen People (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday and Co., 1972). p. 52.

156. Nehemiah 13:27-28.

157. The Encyclopaedia of the Jewish Religion, p. 140.

158. Jacob Neusner, "Zionism and Judaism," p. 12.

159. The Jewish Encyclopaedia, volume 9, pp. 209-2 10.

160. Graetz, volume 1, p. 369.

161. Ibid., p. 371.

162. Ibid., p. 387.

163. Ibid., p. 388.

164. The Jewish Encyclopaedia, volume 9, p. 210.

165. Encyclopaedia Judaica, volume 3, p. 771.

166. Michael Grant, The History of Ancient Israel, pp. 201-202.

167. Rufus Learsi, Israel: A History of the Jewish People (Cleveland: World Publishing Co., 1966), pp. 117-1 18.

168. Ibid., p. 126.

169. Grant, The History of Ancient Israel, pp. 201-202.

170. The Encyclopaedia of the Jewish Religion, p. 181.

171. Graetz, volume 1, p. 435.

172. The Encyclopaedia of the Jewish Religion, p. 218.

173. Ibid., p. 177.

174. Smith's Bible Dictionary, p. 285.

175. Grant, p. 221.

176. Ibid., p. 222.

177. Encyclopaedia of Zionism and Israel (New York: The Herzl Press, 1971), volume 1, p. 556.

178. Allegro, The Chosen People, p. 137.

179. Encyclopaedia of Zionism and Israel, volume 1, p. 556.

180. Encyclopaedia of Jewish History, p. 46.

181. Who's Who in the Bible, p. 139.

182. Encyclopaedia of Jewish History, p. 46.

183. Smith's Bible Dictionary, p. 684.

184. Encyclopaedia of Jewish History, p. 47.

185. Palestine (Western or Wailing Wall) Order in Council, 1931, Schedule I, p. 39.

186. Encyclopaedia of Zionism and Israel, volume 1, p. 556.

187. Ibid., p. 557.

188. Smith's Bible Dictionary, p. 544.

189. Bishop Eduardo Martinez Dalmau, A Study on the Synoptic Gospels (New York: Robert Speller and Sons, 1964), p. 89.

190. Ibid., p. 90.

191. Smith's Bible Dictionary, p. 198.

192. Isaiah 9: 1.

193. Smith's Bible Dictionary, p. 438.

194. The Jewish Encyclopaedia, volume 5, p. 554.

195. Smith's Bible Dictionary, p. 438.

196. Matthew 27:22-29.

197. Parrot, p. 119.

198. Ibid., p. 116.

199. Smith's Bible Dictionary, pp. 597-598.

200. Encyclopaedia Judaica, volume 14, p. 732.

201. Josephus, The Jewish War (New York: Dorset Press, 1985), p. 332.

202. Ibid., p. 307.

203. Ibid., p. 393.

204. Abraham Rabinovich, In the Galilee —An Ancient "City of Peace," (Herzl Institute Bulletin, volume 25, No. 12, March 6, 1988, p. 4.

205. Merlin Stone, When God Was A Woman (San Diego: HBJ Books, 1976), p. 194.

206. Graetz, volume 2, p. 566.

207. The Encyclopaedia of the Jewish Religion, pp. 373-374.

208. Graetz, volume 2, pp. 421-423.

209. The Universal Jewish Encyclopaedia, volume 9, p. 358.

210. Learsi, Israel: A History of the Jewish People, p. 209.

211. Fr. Eugene Hoade, Guide to the Holy Land (Jerusalem: Fran ciscan Press, 1946), p. 306.

212. History of the Jews, volume 3, pp. 1 1 - 12.

213. Learsi, p. 209.

214. Graetz, volume 3, pp. 19-20.

215. Ibid., volume 1, pp. 395-396.

216. The Encyclopaedia of the Jewish Religion, p. 66.

217. Ibid., p. 67.

218. W. M. Petrie Flinders, et al, The Book of History: A History of All Nations (New York: The Grolier Society, 1915), p. 1785.

219. Ibid., p. 1781.

220. Smith's Bible Dictionary, p. 187.

221. The Encyclopaedia of the Jewish Religion, p. 140

222. Smith's Bible Dictionary, p. 187.

223. The Encyclopaedia of the Jewish Religion, p. 373.

224. The Jewish Encyclopaedia (New York: Funk and Wagnalls, 1904), volume 6, p. 306.

225. Encyclopaedia of Jewish History, p. 50.

226. The Encyclopaedia of the Jewish Religion, p. 374.

227. Learsi, p. 153.

228. The Jewish Encyclopaedia, volume 12, p. 652.

229. The Encyclopaedia of the Jewish Religion, p. 374.

230. The Jewish Encyclopaedia, volume 12, p. 652.

23 1. Graetz, volume 2, pp. 633-634.

232. Alfred J. Kalatch, Who's Who in the Talmud (Middle Village, N.Y.: J. David, 1964), p. 6.

233. The Encyclopaedia of the Jewish Religion, p. 375.

234. Learsi, p. 209.

235. Dvora and Menachem Hacohen, One People (New York: Adama Books, 1986), p. 96.

236. Smith's Bible Dictionary, pp. 496-508.

237. Graetz, volume 3, p. 2 1.

238. Learsi, p. 209.

239. Graetz, volume 3, p. 23.

240. Ibid.

241. The Universal Jewish Encyclopaedia, volume 9, p. 358.

242. Graetz, volume 3, p. 87.

243. Ibid., p. 88.

245. Encyclopaedia of Jewish History, p. 64.

246. The Encyclopaedia Britannica, Eleventh Edition (New York, 191 I), volume 20, p. 624.

247. Robert John, Behind the Balfour Declaration (Costa Mesa, Cal: Institute for Historical. Review, 1988), pp. 76-78.

248. Israel Belkind, The Arabs Who Are in the Land of Israel (Jerusalem: Herrnon, 1969).

249. The Encyclopaedia of the Jewish Religion, p. 205.

250. Ephraim Sevela, Farewell, Israel! (South Bend, Indiana: Gateway Editions, 1977), p 274.

251. Koestler, The Thirteenth Tribe, p. 236.

252. The Jewish Encyclopaedia, volume 4, pp. 1-6.

253. Graetz, volume 3, pp. 138- 14 1.

254. Koestler, pp. 17- 18.

255. Ibid., pp. 232-233.

256. Hoade, Guide to the Holy Land, pp. 53-67.

257. The Universal Jewish Encyclopaedia, volume 9, p. 359.

258. Encyclopaedia of Jewish History, p. 74.

259. Graetz, volume 3, p. 34 1.

260. Ibid., p. 427.

261. Encyclopaedia of Jewish History, p. 88.

262. Ibid.



Encyclopedia of the Palestine Problem
By Issa Nakhleh

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