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Encyclopedia of the Palestine Problem

CHAPTER TWENTY FOUR

TORTURE AND INHUMAN TREATMENT OF PALESTINIAN WOMEN

Part 2 of 5

I returned to the West Bank in early 1969 and was arrested on February 28 and accused of involvement in the super market explosion in West Jerusalem and another in the British Consulate. We had placed a bomb there to protest Britain's decision to furnish arms to Israel. Actually we placed two bombs, the first was found before it went off so we placed another. The intention was not to hurt people but to remind the world that Palestinians existed, to reassert ourselves and to show that we couldn't accept the occupation and Western connivance in silence. There were several resistance operations that week and the Israelis were mad. People were arrested because they were not Jewish; in the Moscobiya alone there were about 400 brought in. They were beaten up and then released; they were just passers-by and innocent of anything, but they were under suspicion because they were not Jews. Well, 1 was arrested a week after the operation; someone had given my name under torture. It was the Id al-Adha and all the family was present. They came at midnight when we were asleep and burst open the front door. "Where's Rasmiya? Where's Rasmiya?" My father asked them for their warrant, but they shoved him aside, entered the girls' bedroom and pulled me out of bed. I opened my eyes to see the room full of soldiers. my sisters petrified. They askedmeat once, "Did you put the bomb in the supermarket?" 1 said I knew nothing. They wouldn't let me dress so 1 just put a coat over my nightgown as it was raining. As soon as we got into the car they started slapping and punching me. They took me to the Ramallah prison for one or two hours - I'm not sure how long. Then they blindfolded and handcuffed me and took me to a place that I thought very far, because we drove for so long, but I learnt later that it was the Moscobiya, the torture factory. Without asking any questions they began beating and poking me. There were several secret police (mukhabarat) in civilian clothes, ten or twelve, not less and perhaps more, and a uniformed military guard at the door. After about half an hour I started screaming; they beat me and I tried to beat them back and they put handcuffs on me again and cursed me in Arabic. Even those who don't speak Arabic at all have learnt all the obscene words. They asked me if I recognized other prisoners whom they brought in one by one. They all looked badly beaten. They beat me with a wooden stick on my body and used an iron bar on my head, and when I lost consciousness they would pour water over me to revive me. I discovered the room had wooden partitions on three sides by being hurled against them. The room was quite bare and empty. Then the questions. This went on all day.

In the afternoon they brought my father. "Save your daughter, say what you know." And they beat me in front of him; my father couldn't bear itand begged them tostop. They said, "To save your house from destruction, let your daughter tell what she knows." And they informed me that two of my sisters, including the paralyzed one, had been brought to the prison too. My father told me that they had been beaten. "We can't stand any more, please tell them what you know." But 1 said I knew nothing and they took my father away.

Well, they continued; then they took me to an office and sat me on a chair and a man spoke to me gently and pleasantly, telling me that he was an Iraqi Jew, had good relations with Arabs and liked them and he begged me to confess. While he was speaking of his cordial relations with Arabs I could hear screams and groans in the background, and he said, "Do you hear? Confess so that the same won't happen to you." 1 said 1 didn't know what to confess and he said, "I'll write it for you," and wrote in Hebrew. I dictated an imaginary story about how there had been explosives made in the house but someone had come and taken them, a person swathed in veils so Ididn't know whether it was male or female, nor did I know where the explosives were to be taken. He read this rigmarole out to me and I signed the Hebrew text in Arabic; at that time I knew no Hebrew.

The questioning continued, by day or night. They used to show me people I knew who had been tortured; they tortured me in front of a girl 1 knew so that she would confess - confess what they wanted, of course. Some of them played a good role and would tell me, "You're apretty girl, you should be out having fun, why ruin your life?" One of them maintained that he was in love with me and wanted to marry me, if only I would confess. They showed me men hanging by their wrists, men who had been given electric shocks - Qasim Abu-Khadra16 died from this and Abu-Rmeily went mad; they were both from Jerusalem. One man had his head cut open by the blows and it turned gangrenous. They showed me my fiance, Yaqoub Odeh; the first time 1 saw him I didn't recognize him, he'd been so terribly tortured. And yet he had never done a single military operation in his life. He's still in prison. They showed me dogs set on prisoners. They showed me all these things so that I would confess to things I didn't know of, but I wouldn't confess what I did know. They beat me in front of my father and sisters and beat them in front of me. And they told my father that my activities were not political, but sexual, and showed him men who they said I had slept with. I replied that if I was not guilty of political work then they should releaseme. The thing is that the Israelis know how sensitive we are about these matters and they used the sexualaspect in order to frighten the girls and tomake families refuse to let their daughters participate in the struggle.

The first time they stripped me and threw me on the floor, the room was full of men - civilians and soldiers. They laughed at my nakedness and kicked me, beat me with sticks, pinched me all over, especially on the breasts; my body was covered with bruises. Then they got a wooden stick, not a smooth one, and pushed it into me to break the hymen. They brought my father and fiance to see me. I lost consciousness and when I woke I was in another room, lying on the floor with a blanket over my legs but my body still naked. They were questioning a young man, and were using me as a form of pressure to make him confess. They did the same to another girl while I was in the Moscobiya, Aysha Odeh, who was arrested at the same time as myself. (We have the same name but arenot related.) 1 spent over a week in my torn nightgown, although my family came every day to ask about me and brought clean clothes.

One time an interrogator, Abu-Ham, sat me on achair and sat himself opposite. He put his legs on the chair on either side of me and boxed me on theears until I couldn't hear anymore and brought in my father and told him to strip and make love to me. "She isn't your daughter, she's your wife, go on, sleep with her." My father screamed and they beat him till he lost consciousness; blood was pouring from my mouth and nose and I couldn't hear anymore. They dragged him unconscious from the room. Another time they stripped me and took me to a room where men were suspended from the ceiling. They handcuffed me to the hooks in the ceiling - it was a pulley system which could be raised and lowered - and then chained my feet to the ground, wide apart, and raised me so only the tips of my toes touched the ground. They said they had been going to rape me but I was loo dirty for them and they would instead get some prisoners who hadn't seen a Torture and Inhuman Treatment of Palestinian Women 647 woman for a long time. I used to curse them as long as I was conscious.

When they put on the nice act I would say, "Alright, if you liked Iraq so much go back there and leave me in peace in my country." They would tell me, "You're educated and have a nice home, why do you do this sort of thing?" told them 1 didn't do it for money, 1 was trying to defend my home, and that real honour lay in fighting and rejecting the occupation of our country. They kept on telling me I was young and would spend my youth in prison and in the meantime those who gave me orders were sitting in Beirut enjoying themselves, without giving me a thought. They used to urge me to join them and become an informer. "Join us and we'll release you and you can go to the US and we won't demolish your house." But they had already destroyed it, although 1 didn't know that. And they would play me tapes of people confessing and implicating me (I later learnt they were made up) and tapes of people being tortured, to weaken me. They took me to the supermarket and the British Consulate and told me to point out where the bombs had been placed. 1 didn't know so they showed me and had me photographed standing on the sites. I was sent to an infirmary several times after losing consciousness because I became very ill after the sexual assault and faintedeasily. There were two doctors, or perhaps they were nurses there, one about 60 and the other in her late 30's or early 40's. They never said anything, never protested about my condition; they just patchedme up and sent me back for more.

My father and my paralyzed sister were released after 18 days, on the intervention of the US consul, because my father was very ill. My youngest sister was kept in prison on an administrative detention order for a year and a half. She was never charged, and in fact she had never done anything at all. 1 spent 45 days in the Moscobiya, 25 of them in solitary confinement. It was three months before I was allowed to see the Red Cross representative.

Then I was moved, with others, to Nablus prison. We passed my home, and I saw its demolished ruins, just a heap of rubble. We were in anarmy truck, handcuffed andescorted by the Border Guards, who forbade us to speak to each other or to move. One of the other prisoners was a doctor, a Palestinian, and he tried to help me when I fell down. The guard beat him. From Nablus I was taken back to the Moscobiya, to a room they called the court; in it was one man who said he was the judge. I told him 1 did not admit to being guilty but he ruled that I was to be imprisoned. I was sent to prison in a bus, again with Border Guards, who amused themselves by catching beetles or cockroaches (we were all blindfolded as well as handcuffed) and forcing them into our mouths.

Ramleh is a prison, it isn't like the Moscobiya once you are there it means the interrogation is over unless they want more information, but even there I was questioned a couple of times. Still, a prison is much better; this was for women and also held Israeli women, in for drug crimes or prostitution or theft or other civil crimes. They used to torment us at first. When I entered prison there were between 12 and 15 Palestinian girls, later the number grew to 45-50.

Prison conditions were as follows: For the first two months we were allowed no books at all and the only newspaper was al-Anba, because it supports the occupation. We were considered criminals, murderers, and treated accordingly. Medical care was perfunctory. We slept six toa small room, in bunk beds. one above the other. There was running cold water in the room but no heating at all, and many of us became rheumatic after a few damp cold winters. The food wasn't very nourishing and the quantities were small - we all needed more after our interrogations. For instance,when they arrested me I weighed 59-60 kilos; this dropped to 47 kilos at one period, and I was very weak and ill. My family weren't allowed to visit me until two months after my transfer to prison. Visits were for half an hour. At first three people were allowed weekly, and they could bring us fruit; then this was stopped. After that visits were reduced to only once a month and then to only one visitor, so if you had twelve relatives you could only see each of them once a year. Four or five months after my arrest we went on hunger strike to get our treatment improved. Our demands were for increased visitors and more often than once amonth, books, medical care, better food, and for more than just one hour of exercise in the courtyard. We also wanted to be treated as political prisoners instead of criminals. We said we would continue our hunger strike until all these requests were satisfied, and we appointed two girls to act as our representatives.

Well, they fed us by force, with tubes through our nostrils. Two girls were taken to hospital and until today one of them still has trouble with her stomach and the other with her nose. After a weekadoctor came todiscuss our complaints and they agreed to let us have books and a newspaper on aregular basis, to allow three adult visitors (but still only once a month), better medical care and food, and they offered to let us out for longer than an hour a day provided we agreed to work in the prison and the grounds. So we did, and our work in the flower and vegetable gardens improved the look of the prison tremendously. It became a real problem for us because foreign visitors were impressed and thought the prison looked delightful -more like a home than a jail. We also worked in the kitchen and cleaned the corridors and dining room, and we sewed- hospital sheets, prison uniforms (once they gave us military uniforms to sew but we went on strike and they didn't repeat it), and did embroidery. This was Palestinian embroidery, which they called the Israeli heritage. The prison wardress, Raya Epstein, was from Russia. At first she used to tell visiting journalists that we were black-hearted killers of children, that we were backward, underdeveloped, that we understood nothing. She used to say these things in front of us. But after ten years of contacts, of conversations and discussions, she changed her opinion and began telling people that we were educated and aware, that we felt we were Palestinian nationalists. But in prison power was always with the people who hated Palestinians. So she lost her authority in the end, and her deputy, who loathed us, assumed more and more.

The International Red Cross used to visit us once every two months, then it was cut to once every three months. At the period when 1 was very ill and lost 12 kilos the delegate begged the authorities to help me, but no one would. What can the Red Cross do? If they insist too much and make nuisances of themselves they are transferred or recalled to Geneva at the request of the Israeli government. The delegate used to say, "I can find out about things but I cannot change or stop them."

The doctor used to come twice a week to see prisoners who were very ill, but the treatment was perfunctory. For instance, when I began having acidity, he gave me no medicine and I ended up with an ulcer. I had a permanent headache and frequent nosebleedings, then veins started bursting on my body - the doctor said it was a nervous condition. I used to lose consciousness; he would examine me and say in English, "Everything is OK." I would reply, also in English, "No it is not." Then one day, quite abruptly, I stopped seeing, altogether lost my sight. Icried out to the other girls that I had gone blind. I was terrified. The doctor came and examined me and said I was pretending (because I was a saboteur, a terrorist, etc. and so must be playacting) and nothing needed to be done. I spent 21 days, blind, and then my sight returned as suddenly as it had gone. When I was examined in Geneva, after my release, the doctors there said it was due to the blows on my head which prevented the blood from circulating properly. And to this day I have attacks and can't see and become frantic.

I wasn't the only one they neglected - they did the same to other girls, one who had cancer and one who lost the sight of an injured eye because they didn't operate. But other prisons were much worse than Ramleh and I was transferred twice as punishment, once to Nablus because they thought I was a ringleader and egging on the others, and once to Gaza because I tried to escape by digging under the outside wall of the compound and I was caught.

Psychologically the Israelis had three aims. The first was to turn us away from nationalist work, the second to make us into docile second-class citizens, the third to Zionize us mentally. Of course political discussions, or even songs, were absolutely forbidden. Even the word "Palestine" was prohibited. Once a child among the visitors sang a song which mentioned Palestine and the prisoner being visited was not allowed visits for three months. They forbade any sort of association being formed, for fear of it being used for political indoctrination; we were allowed to give three or four talks on anodyne subjects and then this was stopped. After a time they would not allow the Red Cross to give us pencils and paper because we were using them to teach illiterate girls to read and write and they didn't want that. They gave us a few lessons in Hebrew and then stopped them, probably because we were doing well. But we made friends with some of the Israeli prisoners and they gave us newspapers, so we started teaching ourselves. Incidentally, we always knew when there had been a feda'i operation because all the newspapers and radios would be stopped. Anyway, we had other ways of finding out which can't be revealed yet.

We would get Israeli lecturers, who spoke Arabic and would speak to us about the kibbutz movement, the Histadrut, Zionism; we got books on Herzl, and Golda Meir and Eban, and Zionist accounts of Palestine, while any book by an Arab on Palestine, or any Marxist or progressive books were forbidden. We got folklore troupes who sang songs about Israel, actors who performed plays extolling Zionist heroes and deeds, and so on. I think they thought this would change our minds. We were minutely observed and detailed reports made about our smallest, most insignificant deeds, so as the better to control and manipulate us.

They also did their best to turn us against each other. They would tell the Christian prisoners, "We are friendly with the Lebanese Christians and would like to be more friendly with you. After all, you're bettereducated andmore advanced, why should you ally yourselves with the Muslims who are backward?" And they would try and create dissensions between the girls who belonged to Fateh and the PFLP and other organizations. But we were determined to keep up our surnud, our determination, and also to build up the girls who entered prison by teaching them to read and write, and to become aware of their role in the community. In fact we succeeded in this and we did make them aware of what they could do in our society.

In March 1979 we were blindfolded and handcuffed and loaded onto a bus. We thought we must be going to another prison; we didn't know that we were to be released. Up till the very last minute the Israelis behaved meanly. On the tarmac of the airport in Israel - I don't know which airport as we were still blindfolded - they told us that if we wanted to go to the bathroom to do it right there, in the open. I suppose they wanted to photograph us and show that Palestinians are animals, without shame. And in the plane, in addition to keeping us blindfolded and handcuffed, they tied our feet as well. A representative from the Red Cross was with us, but he sat in front, and anyway he had no authority over us; the Israelis did. We were not allowed to talk and they knocked us about in the plane. When it landed, as I waited to go out, I received such a blow from behind that I thought my back was broken. Meanness, right up to the last.

And so I left prison, without even saying goodbye to the girls there who had become part of me.

Of course my dream was to find, once again, my natural place in the struggle. Prison is a place of struggle too, but it isn't the natural one. I will remain part of the cause and the cause is part of us and I will play my part in it. Without struggle nothing can be achieved for a good life.

LIST OF WOMEN POLITICAL PRISONERS COMPILED BY SORAYA ANTONIUS

Because Israel has but a mockery of due process, many of the Palestinian political prisoners in Israel are unable to ascertain the charges under which they are held. Therefore the alleged reasons for some of the prison internments are unknown, and thus there is no data available for remarks on many cases. Remarks concerning charges in the following list of women political prisoners should not be construed as representing a presumption of guilt on the part of the Palestinian women concerned. Information made available by the Israelis is sometimes contrived and should not be relied upon. Further, membership in a political organization per se is not illegal in civilized societies, nor is it the responsibility of a wife to testify against her husband, let alone to be an informer against him.

Halima Abadu, 17, of Nuseirat camp, was arrested in 1970 and given a one year suspended sentence and a fine of 500 Israeli Pounds (I.L.). Remarks: disturbances in school.

Butheina Abbasi/Ayash of Jericho was arrested in 1974 and sentenced to 8 months imprisonment.

Ne'mat Abboud, 20, of Nablus, was arrested in 1974 and sentenced to 2 years imprisonment. Remarks: member of Fateh and weapons training.

Rahma Abboud, 16, was arrested in 1979. Remarks: member illegal organization.

Faiza Abboush of Jenin was arrested in 1975 and sentenced to one and a half years imprisonment.

Nahla Abboushi, born 1949, of Jenin, was arrested in 1975 and sentenced to one and a half years imprisonment. Remarks: member illegal organization; schoolteacher; beaten up.

Reem Abboushi, 15, of Jenin, was arrested in 1974 and fined IL 500. Remarks: schoolgirl, father refused to pay fine, arrested.

Fathiya Abdel-Hadi, reportedly born 1948, of the West Bank, was arrested in 1974 and reportedly sentenced to one year imprisonment.

Fayha Abdel-Hadi, born 1951, of Nablus, was arrested in 1969. Remarks: deported without trial after 40 days in prison; beaten up.

Ghada Abdel-Hadi, born 1951, of Nablus, was arrested in 1969 and sentenced to six months imprisonment and fined IL 500. Remarks: beaten up.

Issam Abdel-Hadi, born 1928, of Nablus, was arrested in 1969. Remarks: Deponed after 40 days in prison without trial; president, Women's Union; also arrested September 1967 - no charge

Khawla Abdel-Hadi, 45, of Nablus, was arrested in 1974 and sentenced to 3 months and one year suspended. Remarks: Helped prisoners' families.

Hajja Tawadud Abdel-Hadi, 41, of Jenin, was arrested in 1968 and placed in administrative detention for 11 days. Remarks: Fateh, headmistress of girls' school; deported.

Tamam Abdel-Halim, born 1945, of Gaza. was arrested in 1972.

Wife of Omar Abdel-Moneim, of Bethlehem. Remarks: arrested and tortured to make husband confess; spent at least 9 days in Moscobiya; 1 1-year old son also arrested.

Aysha Abdel-Qader of Hebron was arrested in 1975 and sentenced to one month imprisonment. Remarks: threw stone at officer.

Samiha Abdel-Rahman of Gaza was arrested in 1970 and sentenced to four years imprisonment.

Laila Abdel-Razzaq, 35, of Galilee, was arrested in 1970 and sentenced to 9 months imprisonment. Remarks: Her husband gave her a parcel of explosives which she buried. She is the mother of six.

Shukriya Abdel-Samad of Jerusalem was arrested in 1976 and sentenced to 3 years imprisonment.

Nahla Abdu of pre- 1967 Israel was arrested in 1979 and sentenced to 15 days administrative detention. Remarks: student at Haifa university.

Amina Abdullah, 30, of the West Bank, was arrested in 1972. Lina Abdullah of Burj camp (Deir al-Balah) was arrested in 1968 and sentenced to 6 or 9 months and fined IL 500 or 750. Remarks: demonstration.

Samira Abdullah was arrested in 1977 and sentenced to 6 months. Remarks: demonstration?

Siham Abdullah of Jenin was arrested in 1976. Remarks: schoolgirl.

Yusra Abdullah, born 1936. of the West Bank, was arrested in 1977 and sentenced to 15 months.

Khairiya Abdy of Gaza was arrested in 1975 and sentenced to seven years imprisonment.

Aziza Abed, 21, of Nuseirat camp, was arrested in 1970 and sentenced to 6 months imprisonment. Remarks: Fateh.

Saadiya Abed of Gaza was arrested in 1972.

Amna Abraj of Gaza was arrested in 1972.

Rajiya Abu-Abbas of Gaza was arrested in 1975 and sentenced to 3 years imprisonment. Remarks: PEP.

Wajida Abu-Abbas, born 1954 in Jenin, was arrested in 1975 and sentenced to 2 years imprisonment.

Ghazala Abu-Ajram, born 1930 in Gaza, was arrested in 1975 and sentenced to 3 years imprisonment.

Latifa Abu-Ali of Jerusalem was arrested in 1976 and sentenced to 6 months imprisonment.

Fathiya Abu-AlufaIAbu-Alwan of the West Bank was arrested in 1970 and sentenced to 6 months imprisonment. Remarks: did not report son's infiltration into the West Bank; her 60 year old husband sentenced to one year imprisonment.

Rakiba Abu-Alufa of the West Bank was arrested in 1970 and sentenced to six months imprisonment. Remarks: Daughter of above, did not report brother.

Fatma Abu-Arbiyat of Gaza was arrested in 1970 and placed in administrative detention.

Khadija Abu-Arqoub, 26, of Dora. Remarks: arrested 4 times between 1970-75; tried twice (6 and 10 months); Communist, or trouble-maker, or Fateh; beaten up.

Suad Abu-AtaIAttas, 28, of Bethlehem, was arrested in 1970 and sentenced to one year imprisonment and one year suspended. Remarks: Fateh, nurse.

Nuhad Abu-Ateif of Nablus was arrested in 1976. Afaf Abu-Atiya of Ramallah was arrested in 1977 and sentenced to 3 months or fined IL, 10,000. Remarks: demonstration; schoolgirl.

Fatma Abu-Awas of Nablus was arrested in 1968 and sentenced to 3 days imprisonment. Remarks: went to Jaffa without a permit.

Mariam Abu-Ayadpayad, born 1952, of Gaza camp, was arrested in 1973 and sentenced to one year imprisonment. Nahida Abu-Ayash of Nablus was arrested in 1976 and sentenced to 18 months imprisonment.

2 women, Abu-Ayash, of Kfar Illut (Nazareth) were arrested in 1970. Remarks: Gave food and shelter to their relative, infiltrator from Lebanon.

Mariam Abu-Bakr, 18, of Gaza, was arrested in 1969 and sentenced to one and a half years imprisonment. Remarks: Fateh fundraising.

Wadia Abu-Chuzah, 30, of Gaza, was arrested in 1970 and sentenced to 11 months imprisonment and also fined.

Zarifa Abu-Coptiya of Dhahiriya was arrested in 1969. Zahiya Abu-Dakka, born 1952, of the West Bank, was arrested in 1972.

Aliya Abu-DayydQaissi, born 1950, of Dhahiriya, was arrested in 1978 and sentenced to 15 years imprisonment. Remarks: carded out 11 military operations, fired rockets, recruited; beaten up; DFLP.

Wasfiya Abu-Dayya of Jabaliya camp was arrested in 1969 and sentenced to 3 months imprisonment.

Safiya Abu-Dif of Gaza was arrested in 1969 and sentenced to 3 months imprisonment.

Lam'a Abu-Eid, 60, of Bittuniya (Ramallah) was arrested in 1968 and sentenced to 9 months imprisonment. Remarks: hid arms; tortured.

Amna Abu-Fazmaz, 23, of Gaza, was arrested in 1972 and sentenced to 3 1/2 months imprisonment plus 20 months suspended.

Ilham Abu-Ghazaleh, 30's, of Nablus, was arrested in 1976. Remarks: sister of Shadia, first woman resister killed after occupation.

Nuhad Abu-Ghazaleh of Nablus was arrested in 1969 and sentenced to 1 1/2 years imprisonment.

Nadia Abu-Haija, born 1962, of Jenin, was arrested in 1978 and sentenced to 1 1/2 years imprisonment plus 1 112 years suspended. Remarks: Fateh.

Massira Abu-Hamda, born 1949, of the West Bank, was arrested in 1976 and sentenced to 14 months imprisonment.

Samira Abu-Hmdan of Ballatacamp was arrested in 1978 and sentenced to 3 months imprisonment and fined IL 1,000. Hind Abu-Hamida was arrested in 1972.

Mariam Abu-Harbi, born 1934, of Gaza, was arrested. Date of arrest unknown.

Sobhiya Abu-Hassan, born 1920, of Gaza, was arrested in 1972.

Nathira Abu-lqteish, 70, of Hebron, was arrested in 1975. Remarks: Detonators in luggage when she crossed the bridge; widow.

Amira Abu-Jabal of Majdal Shams was arrested in 1975. Remarks: brother killed infiltrating from Syria; her father and brother got 30 and 15 years.

Suad Abu-Jala of Jerusalem was arrested in 1975. Najah Abu-Jayish, born 1947, of the West Bank, was arrested in 1974.

Ilharn Abu-Jazar of Nablus was arrested in 1973 and sentenced to 39 days administrative detention. Remarks: not charged.

Radia Abu-Kalash of Gaza was arrested in 1975 and sentenced to 1 1/2 years imprisonment.

Zainab Abu-Kamel, born 1948, of Gaza, was arrested in 1978 and sentenced to one year imprisonment.

Radiya Abu-Kass of Gaza was arrested in 1975 and sentenced to 1 1/2 years imprisonment.

Wife and daughter of Qasim Abu-Khadra, of Acre, were arrested in 1969. Remarks: arrested with him, fishermen caught with arms in boat, "committed suicide under interrogation"; wife and daughter also tortured.

Maha Abu-Khaled, 22, of Gaza, was arrested in 1970 and sentenced to 2 years imprisonment. Remarks: PFLP, attempted hijack.

Shahnaz Abu-Khaled, 17, of Jerusalem, was arrested in 1974. Remarks: demonstration.

Noha Abu-Khater of Ramallah was arrested in 1978 and sentenced to 3 months imprisonment and fined. Remarks: student demonstration.

Nur Abu-Koush/Karsh, born 1945, of Gaza camp, was arrested in 1973 and sentenced to 2 112 years imprisonment. Wafiya Abu-Malih of Gaza was arrested in 1969 and sentenced to 4 years imprisonment.

Zainab Abu-Mansour, born 1948, of Gaza camp, was arrested in 1971 and sentenced to 5 months imprisonment plus 19 months suspended.

Lutfiya Abu-Maramil of Gaza was arrested in 1975 and sentenced to 2 years imprisonment.

Suad Abu-Mayala, born 1946, of Jerusalem (Ramallah?) was arrested in 1975 and sentenced to 5 years imprisonment plus 5 years suspended. Remarks: teacher; arrested 1969 because brother accused of PFLP membership; lost her job because she had to report daily to police; 1975 arrest because she helped prisoners' families.

Siham Abu-Naja of Gaza was arrested in 1972 and sentenced to 3 years imprisonment.

Sharifa Abu-Nejeim, born 1958, of the West Bank, was arrested in 1978 and sentenced to 15 years (months?) imprisonment.

Issam Abu-Nuwar was arrested in 1977.

Dalal Abu-Qamarmhater, born 1954, of Gaza, was arrested in 1971 and sentenced to 8 years imprisonment. Remarks: accomplice in death of collaborator.

Awidya Abu-Qazhouza of Gaza was arrested in 1970 and sentenced to 11 months imprisonment. Remarks: connected with illegal organization.

Hala Abul-Rabb of Jerusalem was arrested in 1974. Remarks: member National Front.

Aziza Abu-Radesh was released 22/11/72. Date of arrest unknown.

Widow of Hussein Abu-Rani of the West Bank was arrested in 1977. Remarks: Raised Palestinian flag over husband's grave.

4 women from Abu-Ras family of Ramallah were arrested in 1970.

Suad Abu-Said, of Nablus, was arrested in 1974 and placed in administrative detention. Remarks: security reasons.

Sohiya Abu-Salah, 22, of Tulkarm, was arrested in 1969 and sentenced to 4 years imprisonment. Remarks: Fateh; dressmaker; organized girls to knit pullovers for Fateh; beaten up.

Husniya Abu-Saleh, 50 (53?), of Nazareth, was arrested in 1971 and sentenced to 3 years imprisonment. Remarks: mother of Zakiya Shammout.

Aida Abu-Samharan, born 1957, of Rafah, was arrested in 1974 and sentenced to 1 1/2 years imprisonment.

Nadia Abu-Samharan, born 1956, of Rafah, was arrested in 1974 and sentenced to 2 years imprisonment. Remarks: had grenades.

Fatma Abu-Samir of Burj camp was arrested in 1968 and sentenced to 6 or 9 months imprisonment or fined IL 500 or 750. Remarks: demonstration; she said she went to remove her children.

Mariam Abu-Sfat of the West Bank was arrested in 1972. Remarks: helped wanted persons.

Samia Abu-Shamia, born 1957, of Jerusalem, was sentenced in 1975 to 6 months imprisonment. Remarks: member of illegal organization; student.

Nayefa Abu-Sharada of Deir al-Balah was arrested in 1972 and reportedly sentenced to 15 months imprisonment.

Raiqa/Faiqa/Ayshd/ Abu-Sharada/Jarada, born 1946, of Mughazi camp, was arrested in 197 1 and sentenced to 5 years imprisonment plus 8 years suspended. Remarks: threw grenades twice at military HQ Deir al-Balah; husband killed in battle, she refused to mourn but kept house open for commandos; tortured.

Fatma Abu-Sharah, born 1957, of Dhahiriya, was arrested in 1975 and sentenced to 9 months imprisonment plus 9 months suspended. Remarks: raised Palestinian flag. Hind Abu-Sharar of Hebron was arrested in 1970 and sentenced to 8 months (18 months?)

Amina Abu-Sharfa, 22, of Gaza was arrested in 1972 and sentenced to 2 years imprisonment.

Fatma Abu-Sheikh, 13, of Gaza, was arrested in 1969. Remarks: threw stones in schoolgirl demonstration.

Ghaliya Abu-Sitta of Gaza, arrested in 1975 and sentenced to over one year's administrative detention. Remarks: never charged.

Ne'mat Abu-Taha, 16, of Jerusalem, was arrested in 1974. Remarks: demonstration against occupation.

Yusra Abu-Tahoun of Mughazi camp was arrested in 1969 and sentenced to 8 months in administrative detention.

Hasniya Abu-Wafa of Jenin was arrested in 1969 and sentenced to 6 months. Remarks: helped resistance; tortured; schoolgirl.

Ratiba Abu-Wafa of Jenin was arrested in 1969 and sentenced to 6 months imprisonment. Remarks: schoolgirl, sister of above, arrested and sentenced together.

Jamila Abu-Warda of Gaza was arrested in 1971 and sentenced to one month imprisonment. Remarks: helped wanted man.

Fatma Abu-Wared/Obeid, 13, of Gaza, was arrested in 1972 and sentenced to 3 months imprisonment.

Badriya Abu-Zanat of Nablus was arrested in 1970 and sentenced to 5 years imprisonment. Remarks: member of resistance.

Naziha Abu-Zeyna of Jerusalem was arrested in 1973 and sentenced to several days imprisonment and fined IL 80. Remarks: after her husband was killed she left Hebron with her 7-yr-old daughter to live with her father in Jerusalem, "thereby increasing the number of Arab inhabitants."

Bushra Adham, 48, of Nablus, was arrested in 1969. Remarks: incited demonstrations, contacts with resistance; deported after 4 days in prison; headmistress and member Women's Union.

Aysha Adyan, born 1949, of Gaza, was arrested in 1972.

Fatma Afana, 24, of Gaza, was arrested in 1969 and sentenced to 2 years imprisonment. Remarks: sheltered commandos; school-teacher; beaten up.

Hamida Aga of Khan Yunis was arrested in 1971 and sentenced to 10 months imprisonment.

Fatma Ahmad/Abu-Hir, 19, of Acre, was arrested in 1970 and sentenced to 3 months imprisonment. Remarks: married to Fateh member who was sentenced to 10 years; pregnant.

Mariam Ahmad, born 1942, of the West Bank, was arrested in 1975 and sentenced to one year imprisonment.

Salma Ahmad, of Mughazi camp, was arrested in 1969 and sentenced to 9 months imprisonment.

Suad Aiwa of Nablus was arrested in 1968. Remarks: Fateh and weapons training.

Wijdan Ajouri, 18, was arrested in 1979 and sentenced to one year imprisonment plus 3 years suspended. Remarks: resistance to the occupation.

Samar Akoub, born 1957, was arrested in 1977 and sentenced to 6 months imprisonment. Remarks: DFLP; student.

Muntaha Aksah of Shajaya camp was arrested in 1969 and sentenced to 3 months administrative detention.

Ummiya Aleyan, 18, of Dannaba, was arrested in 1969 and sentenced to 6 weeks and fined IL 200. Remarks: led a schoolgirls' demonstration; first schoolgirl to be sentenced by military court.

Samia Ali, born 1955, of the West Bank, was arrested in 1975 and sentenced to 3 years imprisonment. Remarks: member resistance organization and involved in operation; nurse.

Samia Amm/Amru, 24, of hebron, was arrested in 1971 and sentenced to 11 months imprisonment. Remarks: member illegal organization and recruited a girl.

Haifa Ammar, of Jenin, was arrested in 1978 and sentenced to 9 months imprisonment and 9 months suspended. Remarks: opposing the occupation and contacts with illegal organization.

Leila Ammar, 20, of Gaza, was arrested in 1970 and sentenced to 7 months and 5 years suspended. Remarks: PFLP and helped prisoners' families.

Amna Amru of Jerusalem was arrested in 1974 and sentenced to 2 months imprisonment. Remarks: Fateh.

Safiya Amudy, born 1948, of Gaza camp, was arrested in 1973.

Amal Anabus of Nablus was arrested. Date of arrest not known.

Kamila Anassi, born 1952, of Gaza Camp, was arrested in 1973 and sentenced to 4 months imprisonment with 1 year suspended sentence. Remarks: PFLP.

Sobhiya Anassi, 24, of Gaza, was arrested in 1973 and sentenced to 4 months imprisonment plus one year suspended. Remarks: didn't report Dr. Musmar's pro-resistance activities.

Saboula Ani of Burj camp was arrested in 1968 and sentenced to 6 or 9 months or fined II 500 or 750. Remarks: demonstration; she said she went to remove her children.

Raeda Ansari, born 1956, of Jerusalem, was arrested in 1975 and sentenced to 4 months imprisonment. Remarks: student.

Soraya Ansari, early 20's, was arrested in 1977 and sentenced to 20 years imprisonment. Remarks: Arrested and sentenced in Mogadishu after Lufthansa hijack; sole survivor of the group and seriously wounded; another girl was killed.

Fairouz Arafa, of Gaza, was arrested in 1971 and sentenced to one year imprisonment. Remarks: PFLP.

Farida Arafat, 21, of Nablus, was arrested in 1969 and sentenced to one year and fined IL 1,000. Remarks: demonstration.

Halima Arafat, of Jericho, was arrested in 1974 and sentenced to 8 months imprisonment.

Qadria Ariri, of Burj camp, was arrested in 1968 and sentenced to six or nine months or fined IL 500 or 750.

Wijdan Armout, of Nablus, was arrested in 1978 and sentenced to 4 years imprisonment.

Fayza Ashou, 18, of Jerusalem, was arrested in 1974. Remarks: demonstration.

Fatma Ashour of Gaza was arrested in 1978 and sentenced to 15 days imprisonment with 6 months suspended and fined IL 1,000. Remarks: student.

Suad Ashour of Nablus was arrested in 1974. Remarks: member banned organization and weapons training. Laila Asmar was arrested in 1970 and reportedly sentenced to 15 days imprisonment. Remarks: contacts with resistance abroad.

Aziza Assad, 1945, was arrested in 1972.

Nawal Assad, 12 (14?) of Kalandia camp, was arrested in 1979.

Nejma Assad, born 1957, of the West Bank, was arrested in 1975.

Soraya Assaf of Gaza camp was arrested in 1972.

Hanan Assli/Ghazaleh of Jerusalem was arrested in 1969 and sentenced to one year imprisonment. Remarks: PFLP.

Farhana Astal, 60, of Jabaliya camp, was arrested in 1970 and sentenced to 8 months imprisonment. Remarks: sheltered her PFLP sons; daughter, husband and sons also jailed.

Suad Astal, 25, of Jabaliyacamp was arrested in 1970 and sentenced to eight months. Remarks: daughter of above.

Fatma Aswad, of Gaza, was arrested in 1975 and sentenced to 5 years imprisonment.

Wadad Aswad, born 1948, of Shati camp, was arrested. Remarks: Wife of "Gaza's Guevara"; arrested 4 times between 1972-3 for periods of 2 months, 1 1/2 months, etc; interrogated, tortured, never charged; deported 1974.

Zakiya Atil, born 1942, of the West Bank, was arrested in 1972. Adela Atiya was arrested in 1972. Fatma Atiya, born 1942, of Ramallah, was arrested in 1976 and sentenced to 39 days in administrative detention. Remarks: teacher.

Nayla Atout of Nablus was arrested in 1968. Remarks: Fateh.

Umaima Attal of the West Bank was arrested in 1972.

Aysha Awad, born 1929, of Nablus, was arrested in 1971.

Fatma Awad, born 1925, of Gaza, was arrested in 1975 and sentenced to 3 years imprisonment.

Najila Awad of Tulkarm was arrested in 1975.

Wafa Awad, 26, of Ramallah, was arrested in 1971. Remarks: attempted hijack of Alia plane to Baghdad and Fateh.

Suad Awada of Nablus was arrested in 1968 arrested in 1968 plus a 1L 10,000 bond. Remarks: Fateh, teacher.

Abda Awawda. 25, of Gaza was arrested in 1978 and sentenced to 12 years.

Soraya Awawda, born 1958, was arrested in 1970 and sentenced to two years imprisonment. Remarks: rearrested early 1980.

Wajida Ayash was arrested in 1976 and sentenced to 5 years imprisonment. Remarks: university student.

Wajiha Ayed of Gaza was arrested in 1972.

Nayla Ayoub of Jenin (Nablus?) was arrested in 1968 and sentenced to five days plus a IL 10,00 bond. Remarks: suspicion of helping Fateh; teacher.

Raya Azim of Tayyibe was arrested in 1978 and sentenced to 1 1/2 years imprisonment.

Farhana Azouba of gaza was arrested in 1972.

Kamila AzouryRibayiq, born 1957, of the West Bank, was arrested in 1976 and sentenced to 8 months imprisonment.

Dunia Azza of Gaza was arrested in 1975.

Najah Baghdad! of Gaza was arrested in 1977 and sentenced to 50 days imprisonment plus 3 months suspended or IL 500 fine. Remarks: Attacked a soldier during a demonstration; student.

Shafiqa Baheisi, 17, of Deir al-Balah, was arrested in 1970 and given a one year suspended sentence plus a 1L 500 fine. Remarks: creating school disturbance.

Kafa Baiyed, 17, of Gaza, was arrested in 1973 and spent two weeks in administrative detention. Remarks: released because in 9th month of pregnancy and husband arrested in her place; charged with helping "Gaza's Guevara."

Nahla BaiyedBaniss, 19, of Gaza, was arrested in 1969 and sentenced to 3 years imprisonment. Remarks: PLO, student at teachers' training college.

Hurra Bajour, of Jerusalem was arrested in 1974. Remarks: PFLP.

Maissara Bakri of Hebron was arrested in 1972 and sentenced to 15 years (months?) imprisonment.

Rawhiya Bakri, born 1936, of Jerusalem, was arrested in 1972.

Najwa Balbissi of Gaza was arrested in 1969 and sentenced to 1 1/2 years imprisonment with a 1L 300 fine.

Hanan Bali, 19, was arrested in 1969 and sentenced to 1 1/2 years imprisonment. Remarks: PFLP.

Arifa Balifa, 55, of the West Bank, was arrested in 1977 and sentenced to 1 1/2 years imprisonment.

Afifa Bannoura, born 1938, of Beit Sahour, was arrested in 1969 and sentenced to life imprisonment plus ten years. Remarks: PFLP-GC, network involved explosion in bus in Kiryet Yofet; nurse/midwife; 11 months in prison before sentenced; tortured; interrogators kept on telling her she was neither Palestinian nor Arab (because Christian).

Halima Barakat was arrested in 1972 and sentenced to one year imprisonment.

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Encyclopedia of the Palestine Problem
By Issa Nakhleh

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