No hate. No violence
Races? Only one Human race
United We Stand, Divided We Fall
Radio Islam
Know Your enemy!
No time to waste. Act now!
Tomorrow it will be too late



























Swedish or Jewish State?

From the (Jewish?) official home page of the Swedish government ( Jewish propaganda is intensified at the expense of Swedish taxpayers. The government finances it with 15 million crowns.


27 November 1997

The Swedish government 
Project plan for the Living History

- information about the Holocaust



During the party political debate in June 1997, the Prime Minister, Göran Persson, promised "information about what happened during the Second World War, the view of mankind underlying the annihilation of the Jews". The point of departure for his statement was that the Holocaust serves as a constant warning of what can happen if the public debate about democracy and compassion is not kept alive.

The purpose of the information activities included in the project plan is to stimulate discussion of such values as compassion, democracy and the equal value of all people, using the Holocaust as a point of departure.

These information activities should be seen as one contribution to the unceasing endeavours necessary to keep these issues alive - a task undertaken by many different groups in Swedish society.

The party leaders of all the parties represented in the Riksdag have received information about the activities and will each be making a contribution to the project.

The project plan consists of three different parts: political manifestations, activities directed towards parents and the general public, and activities targeting schools and the university and research community.

Political manifestations

Memorial ceremony at the Riksdag

On 27 January 1998, the Swedish Riksdag (Parliament) will hold a memorial ceremony in the house to honour the memory of the 11 million people who died in the Holocaust. On 27 January 1945, troops from the Soviet Red Army captured the town of Auschwitz and liberated the Auschwitz, Birkenau and Monowits camps. At the time, 7,000 prisoners were still in those camps.

Journey to Poland

Members of Parliament from the Swedish Riksdag also plan to visit concentration camps in Poland this winter.


The Swedish Association of Local Authorities and the Federation of County Councils urge municipalities and county councils to arrange manifestations at the first meeting they hold after 27 January.

Concert in Berwaldhallen (the Berwald Concert Hall)

The Government plans to invite representatives of different sectors of Swedish society to attend a concert in the Berwald Concert Hall on the evening of 27 January 1998.

Parents/general public

The point of departure for the Prime Minister's initiative is that all adults in Sweden have a responsibility to pass on the memory of the Holocaust. It is not just the responsibility of schools. Parents and other adults must spread democratic values and knowledge of history.

Book about the Holocaust

A letter will be sent to the parents of all children attending compulsory comprehensive school offering them the opportunity to send for a book about the Holocaust. The book is an anthology of texts, illustrations and facts relating to the Holocaust. It was written for parents and is free of charge. It will also be distributed through libraries and public information centres. The book was edited by an historian of ideas, Stéphane Bruchfeld, together with historian Paul A. Levine. The book will be translated into the main immigrant languages.

Web site (

At present, there is no Swedish web site on the Internet that offers comprehensive information about the Holocaust. The objective is, i.a. to create a powerful counterweight to those individuals and groups who deny that the Holocaust ever took place. Teachers will also be able to use the web site to exchange and spread ideas about pedagogical material and methods. The web site will also contain research findings, information about various actors, a place for debate and - naturally - facts. The web site will open on 10 December and will be developed and extended during the spring within the framework of the project. Later, it will be maintained either by the new authority for integration or by some other organization.

Discussion material for parent-teacher meetings

In cooperation with the National School and Home Union, material is being prepared for use at meetings with the parents of children in grades 4 to 6. The aim is to create an opportunity for active meetings, where parents together with staff members at school, have a chance to discuss compassion, tolerance, xenophobia and human rights.


According to the Education Act, schools together with parents should help students to grow into adults who have a sense of responsibility. According to the history syllabus, students should be familiar with "the history of our time including genocide, revolutions, wars and efforts for peace".

An important project on these issues is already underway in Swedish schools. In order to assist teachers and to spread knowledge and ideas, the following activities are to be launched:

Film package to schools

Schindler's List, Swing Kids and The Boys from St. Petri are three of the films that schools will be able to borrow free of charge to show to students from the fourth grade and upwards. Schools will also be offered a package of video films containing brief documentaries and one longer film. Schools will be able to borrow these films at audio-visual aid centres throughout the country. This project is being carried out in cooperation with the Swedish Film Institute and the National Agency for Education.

"Catalogue of ideas"

A compendium of selected films, literature, educational materials, web sites and organizations/lecturers relating to the Holocaust will be sent to all schools. This catalogue is being produced jointly by the Swedish Union of Teachers, the National Swedish Federation of Teachers and the National Agency for Education.

Material for grades 4-6

The experiences of Benny Grünfeld, who survived the Nazi camps, and who lives today in Sweden, have served as the basis of a package of educational materials for students in grades 4-6. This material is called "I think about a family", and is part of "How is things? ", a larger package of teaching materials produced for the Swedish Coordinating Committee for the European Year against Racism.

Seminars for teachers

In cooperation with the National Agency for Education, the Swedish Union of Teachers and the National Swedish Federation of Teachers, teachers all over Sweden will be offered the opportunity to attend seminars. These will deal with facts about the Holocaust, illustrate links to events in contemporary Sweden, White Power music, neo-Nazi organizations etc. and discuss how to apply a pedagogical approach to these issues. The seminars will be targeted primarily at teachers working at the intermediate level and above. Approximately ten seminars are planned.

University and research

National Resource Centre at Uppsala University

The Government proposes that a national resource centre for research and instruction on the Holocaust and genocide should be set up at Uppsala University. The centre's task will be to conduct research into and provide programmes of higher and adult education on such subjects as the Holocaust, genocide and their prevention, and human rights. The centre will serve as a national facility and contribute to cooperation between universities and university colleges. In the spring of 1998, Uppsala University is to arrange an international research symposium on genocide and the Holocaust. In connection with this event, a number of seminars will be arranged for education lecturers, journalists, etc.

The Government also proposes that Ceifo (Centre for International Migration and Ethnic Relations) at Stockholm University should be given the opportunity to conduct and complete a number of important research projects on Nazism and racism. One such project is already being conducted jointly with the National Council for Crime Prevention in a number of places in Sweden where there have been problems with neo-Nazi groups.

Other projects

Support to survivors' organizations

Many of the people who survived the Nazi camps, and their children, make a vital contribution by narrating their experiences to others. Although it is often extremely painful to talk about their experiences, these people make frequent appearances in schools and at other public meetings. The Government plans to give economic support to their work.

Swedish Educational Broadcasting Company/Swedish Television Company

In the spring, these two companies will be broadcasting programmes that reflect the issues in various ways. The Educational Broadcasting Company will devote a full day to programmes about the Holocaust, ethnic cleansing and racism. Specialists, survivors, students, teachers and others will be in the studio.

Memorial in Stockholm

The Swedish Association of Holocaust Survivors has initiated a project to raise a monument in Stockholm. The monument will serve as living testimony to the past and should play an pedagogical role in the fight against racism and xenophobia. The monument will be erected in the vicinity of the synagogue on Wahrendorffsgatan in Stockholm.

Journey to Poland

On 27-28 November, a group of representatives of various authorities and organizations in Sweden headed by the Minister, Thage G. Peterson, will undertake a two-day trip to Auschwitz.

The measures described above will cost approximately SEK 15 million.

For further information, please contact Anna-Karin Johansson, Desk Officer, tel: 08-405 41 47.


Facts instead of Jewish propaganda:

Links to interesting revisionist sites

120 Questions and Answers

By Charles E. Weber

Copyright 1983 by Charles E. Weber. Published by the

Institute for Historical Review

Post Office Box 1306
Torrance, California 90505


Table of Contents

Note: Frequently cited references are usually given in an abbreviated form. Their full equivalents are given in the bibliography at the end of the questions.


(Changes shown by broken lines)

March 1938
Austria incorporated into Germany ("Anschluss").

Sept. 1938 Sudetenland (peripheral areas of western Czechoslovakia) incorporated into Germany as a result of Munich Agreement.

March 1939 Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia established by Germany. Slovakia becomes independent republic.

March 1939 Memel (between E. Prussia and Lithuania) incorporated into Germany.

April 1939 Italy occupies Albania.

Sept. 1939 Western Poland, Danzig, part of Silesia reincorporated into Germany; northern and eastern part of Poland occupied by U.S.S.R.; General Government established by Germany with Crakow as capital.

1939 — 1940 U.S.S.R. occupies and later incorporates Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania; drives into southeastern parts of Finland, takes Bessarabia from Romania.

1939 — 1941 Hungary expands into southern Czechoslovakia, Transylvania and part of Yugoslavia.

April 1940 Denmark and Norway invaded by Germany.

May 1940 Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, northern and western France occupied by Germany; capital of French state established in Vichy (remaining part of France occupied in November 1942).

Sept. 1940 Southern Dobruja ceded to Bulgaria.

May 1941 Yugoslavia and Greece occupied by Germany, Italy and other allies; area around Marbourg incorporated into Germany.




Nearly four decades after the end of the Second World War a number of questions remain as to the origins and conduct of the tragic conflict, which still casts a shadow over all mankind, although innumerable books have been written about this war, scholarly, popular, propagandistic and simply fictional. One of the questions of great significance is the plight of European Jews during the war. Living in a land with a very powerful and vociferous Jewish minority, we Americans still encounter almost daily materials of various sorts pertaining to this aspect of the war, materials created for the most part with a sophisticated calculation. This book has been written primarily for the benefit of thinking, open-minded Americans who want to become familiar with more than one view of the question in order to arrive at the truth. As one participant in the war, I am attempting here to give a view of that aspect based on my own experiences in military intelligence, as well as on subsequent reading, published research and lecturing. As a result of the present and persistent importance of the subject, much innovative investigation has taken place on both sides of the Atlantic, particularly during the last decade or so. My attempt here is not to present much of my own research on special phases of the question. My attempt is, rather, to summarize the findings of those who have investigated the present questions and have cast doubts of various kinds on the generally accepted versions, to give some background on developments which led to the plight of the Jews and to present some of the chief points of evidence which have caused sincere, objective investigators to question popularly held, energetically propagated versions of this phase of the war. I have attempted to set forth information and observations in a form readily accessible to those readers who have not concerned themselves as specialists in this area and in a form also suitable for use as a school study guide. Furthermore, I have frequently given references to some of the more important and recent specialized literature on which I have drawn in order to lead readers to the more detailed works. The references following many of the answers, however, have a second obiective. By including them I wish to acknowledge my debt to those courageous and creative researchers who have made this essentially propaedeutic work possible.


Charles E. Weber, Ph.D.

Formerly Head of the

Department of Modern Languages,

The University of Tulsa.

Spring, 1983


Definitions and Semantic Development of the Term "Holocaust"


1. What is meant by the term "Holocaust"?

This word is of Greek origin and originally referred to a sacrifice wholly consumed by flames. The word has been appropriated by Zionist propagandists for their allegation that millions of Jews were murdered (largely by lethal gas) during the Second World War in Europe as a result of an extermination policy on the part of Germany and its allies. The number of Jews killed as a result of this alleged policy is usually, but by no means always, claimed to be some 6,000,000. It is sometimes claimed that a similar policy was directed toward Gipsies, but these are seldom mentioned. The claim has also been called the Extermination Thesis, which is devoid of a propagandistic orientation. The word "holocaust" could far more appropriately be applied to the destruction by fire of a number of European cities, such as Dresden.


Importance of the Problem


2. Why is the question of the validity of the "Holocaust" claims of importance to every American?

These claims have been instrumental in determining important aspects of United States foreign policy since about 1944 and have probably even had their effects on domestic law. American foreign policy, in turn, has resulted in a Communist iron curtain running right down the center of Europe (the motherland of Western Civilization), has incurred the hostility of scores of millions of people of the Islamic faith (who control huge oil reserves of vital interest to Americans) and has possibly even been responsible in part for the threat of nuclear annihilation of our nation or Communist enslavement. The claims have certainly made our relationship with the German people a less cordial one than it would have been without them.

References: Journal of Historical Review, Vol. III, no. 1, p5. Instauration, March 1983, p12, where a summary of the immediate costs to the American taxpayer of our unwavering support of the Jewish state in Palestine is given.


3. How do the resources of those who disseminate the "Holocaust" material compare to the resources of those who dispute it?

Nearly the whole motion picture industry, the major television networks and much of the press in the United States have actively propagated the Extermination Thesis. Against this huge array of power only a few conscientious scholars have dared to speak out against the Extermination Thesis at the risk of their positions and even physical safety. Recently such scholars have found support and cohesion in the form of the Institute for Historical Review in Torrance, California. The Institute is a modestly funded organization whose resources are indeed minute compared with those of the proponents of the Extermination Thesis.


Cui Bono? Motives for propagating the Extermination Thesis


4. What have been the motivations of Jews in their intense and prolonged dissemination of the Extermination Thesis ("Holocaust" material)?

After their experiences during the Second World War, European Jews were more strongly attracted than ever to Zionism, the central objective of which was the founding of a secular Jewish state. Palestine was the most strongly desired location for that state, but Palestine had a large non-Jewish population which had to be dislodged by terror, murder, diplomatic and financial pressure on the British government and other means. By exaggerating the extent of Jewish mortality during the war, the proponents of the Extermination Thesis could put forth the idea that Jewish migration to various countries should be facilitated since it would be very small due to the great losses alleged. Moreover, a guilt complex could be engendered in potential host countries (especially the United States) by propagating the idea that they had been guilty of not helping Jews while they had been doomed to extermination. By constantly reiterating the "Holocaust" material, Jewish organizations could more effectively frighten Jews themselves into making larger donations for various protective measures against future "Holocausts." The Extermination Thesis has thus served to foster an ethnic awareness and solidarity amongst Jews and to prevent the loss of Jewish identity by intermarriage and other factors. In a more tangible, immediate sphere, the "Holocaust" material helped Jews and the Jewish state founded in 1948 in Palestine financially. Zionist efforts culminated in the Luxembourg agreement of 1952, which forced the west German (Bonn) government to commit itself to protracted, heavy reparation payments to individual Jews and to the newly formed Jewish state. The "Holocaust" material was also effective in repressing any criticism of the Jewish state, no matter how criminal its actions. The gross exaggeration of Jewish mortality also served to bring about a sort of "obliteration by contrast," since other groups, e.g., the Baltic nations, had suffered heavy losses during and indeed after the war at the hands of the USSR, a government which had given the impression of being heavily under Jewish influences in its earlier stages.


5. What has caused non-Jewish groups to tolerate and in some cases even to help disseminate the "Holocaust" material?

The factors which motivated England and a somewhat reluctant France to declare war on Germany on 3 September 1939, had little or nothing to do with an idealistic desire to rescue the dictatorial Polish state. Rather, England's objectives were to restore a balance of power on the continent and to keep a rival for export markets out of competition. As the war went on and on, the costs became ever greater when Germany proved to be far more difficult to defeat than was originally assumed. Finally, a weakened England lost most of its empire. The utter destruction of the Anti-Comintern powers as military entities left a vacuum in Europe which was readily filled by Communist forces. The extensive destruction of monuments and institutions of European civilization also appalled the world. The "Holocaust" material came in very handy in rationalizing the terrible costs and conduct of the war on the part of England and its allies. As far as the USSR was concerned, the whole world was now forced to realize what a horrible mistake had been made by trusting it and supporting its war objectives virtually without reservation. Those who had warned against the USSR could now be embarassed by the "Holocaust" claims, which were now propagated energetically to demonstrate that a German victory would have been worse than the postwar ascendancy of the USSR. Most strangely, we now observe that the government of western Germany in Bonn prosecutes those who question the "Holocaust" claims. This strange behavior on the part of a "German" government must be understood in terms of fears of boycotts of German goods on international markets and pressures from the victorious powers, which still, to some extent, control western Germany as if it were an occupied land. Most governments have a tendency to claim that their subjects are better off than under previous governments. The Bonn government is no exception to this phenomenon. For that reason it makes every effort to denigrate the National Socialist government. The mood of the Bonn government is well summarized in lines 3581-2 of Goethe's Faust:

Wie schien mir's schwarz, und schwäzt's noch gar,

Mir's immer doch nicht schwarz g'nug war.

Reference: Journal of Historical Review, Vol. III, no. 2, pp105-118.


6. What psychological needs will the future, federally subsidized Holocaust Museum in Washington fulfill?

The Holocaust Museum, estimated to cost from thirty to forty million dollars and to be located adjacent to the mall in Washington 400 yards from the Washington Monument, will fulfill a number of psychological end political needs. It constitutes a gigantic, official rationalization and justification for our role in the Second World War, which resulted in the enslavement of eastern and part of central Europe by the Communists, who had demonstrated their brutality and aims to dominate the world any number of times before and after 1939. The museum is intended as a reminder of crimes alleged to have been committed against Europeen Jews by governments which have long ago passed out of existence. Crimes committed against Aryan nations by the Communists, who are a living, present danger to our very existence, will not be thus memorialized. We can rest assured that Congress will not fund huge monuments to the victims of Katyn or the massive deportations of the Baltic populations after World War II, let alone the victims of Operation Keelhaul. Such monuments would simply remind us of our own stupidity in dealing with the prime menace to our existence when it would have been very easy to have done so. As one small consolation to the American Aryan taxpayers who will be forced to pay for this propaganda triumph of Jewry, the museum will be a permanent admonishment to the American people of the disproportionate political power of the Jews in the United States. It is ironic indeed that the monument to the Americans who fell in Vietnam, located not far from the planned Holocaust Museum, is a simple, modest structure which was funded largely by individua1 contributions. Reference: Washington Post , 3 March 1983.


7. What was done in Dachau and other concentration camps to make the Extermination Thesis seem plausible?

After the war parts of concentration camps, both in western Germany and Poland, have been rebuilt in such a way as to give the impression to viewers that huge numbers of internees were murdered by lethal gas in special chambers disguised as shower rooms.

References: W. Stäiglich, Der Auschwitz Mythos, pp77, 411-412. Journal of Historical Review, Vol. I, pp255 ff. and 365 ff.


Coming to Grips with the Extermination Thesis


8. What is an important basic mistake which many historians have made with regard to assessing the plight of the Jews in Europe during the Second World War?

All too often the status of the Jews in Europe, particularly during the years 1941 to 1945, is considered on an isolated basis without taking into consideration the desperate context of the struggle. For Germany and its allies, the war took on an especially desperate character by virtue of the demand for unconditional surrender, the Morgenthau Plan of September 1944, and the very cruel behavior of the Soviet troops advancing into East Prussia during the autumn of 1944. The behavior and demands of the Allies could hardly have been better calculated to prolong the war and make it far more costly for all parties, including the Jews caught up in the fate of the Anti-Comintern nations. Another important but often overlooked factor was the general shortage of food in nearly all of Europe (even including the neutral nations) during the war as a result of the Allied blockade and loss of ships. War, we must bear in mind, means killing, hunger, disease, confiscation and destruction of property, debts, inflation, expansion of the role of government in people's lives, economic and social dislocation, injustice, hatred engendered by propaganda lies, loss of the best genetic assets of a race (especially the case during the First World War), suffering and anguish in concentration and prisoner-of-war camps and waste of valuable years of young men's lives.


9. What difficulties have been encountered by German historians who have attempted to examine various aspects of the Second World War?

German records were captured by the Allied armies and were collected in document centers, such as that at Fechenheim near Frankfurt am Main (at which this author worked for some time during the autumn of 1945). Allied records, on the other hand, were not thus laid bare, while German records of the war were laid bare on a selective basis. In later years the Allied authorities have not seen fit to give public access to many of the documents that would be of crucial importance in obtaining a balanced view on a number of questions, such as the true origins of the war and its conduct.

References: Prof. Helmut Diwald, Geschichte der Deutschen, first printing of 1978, pp163-165. (These pages were altered in later printings.)

Wilhelm Stäglich, Der Auschwitz Mythos, pp367-374.


10. How effective have the efforts of revisionists been in refuting the Extermination Thesis?

In spite of the meagerness of the resources of the revisionists, there are many indications that their efforts have been having some important effects. The great production costs of such films as Holocaust, Playing for Time , The Diary of Anne Frank, Kitty: Return to Auschwitz, The Wall, Genocide, The Winds of War and others were undoubtedly met partly in order to counter the efforts of the revisionists. Then, too, there have been elaborate "Holocaust" seminars sponsored by Jewish groups on numerous university campuses. One could, in fact, speak of a veritable and sizable "Holocaust" industry. On a more scholarly level, significant consessions have had to be made even by resolute proponents of the Extermination Thesis. The Jewish historian Gitta Sereny, for example, is a resolute adherent of the Extermination Thesis, but she has had to concede that "terrible disservice has been done by those who have exaggerated, carelessly misunderstood, or even invented Holocaust events." Even the Hollywood film actor Robert Mitchum was quoted as casting some doubtful remarks about the usual versions of the "Holocaust" (Esquire, February 1983, p56). If the revisionists have succeeded in nothing else, they have shown Americans how powerful, skilled and unscrupulous the people are who have such extensive influence in the motion picture and television industries. In the past there has been a paucity of public debate on the "Holocaust" question. but that is now changing.


11. Are revisionistic historians who dispute the Extermination Thesis "Neo-Nazis" and what are their objectives?

Typically, those who dispute the Extermination Thesis are highly patriotic, idealistic and individualistic men who are by no means socialists, let alone National Socialists. Many have risked their professional positions and even their physical safety in an idealistic pursuit of the truth. Some are Germans, but men of various nationalities are represented. After all, the National Socialist government passed out of existence in 1945 and no longer has any payrolls or even just medals to pass out.


12. What has happened to the historians who have had the integrity and courage to question the "Holocaust" material?

They have been subjected to name-calling, loss of positions, loss of pensions, destruction of their property and even physical violence. Such actions on the part of the Zionists indicate a weak case for the Extermination Thesis and represent an arrogant attack on the freedom of historical investigation. Such rough and unfair tactics are also an indication of the importance of the Extermination Thesis to the Zionists and their allies.


13. Do revisionistic historians claim that Jews in Europe did not suffer during the Second World War and that no Jews were killed by German, Hungarian, Rumanian, Slovakian and other Anti-Comintern authorities?

They recognize that many Jews suffered and died during the Second World War from a great variety of causes and that many died during internment from malnutrition and disease, a fate common to many prisoners of war during many wars, such as the American Civil War. The revisionists deny, however, that Germany and its allies had a policy of exterminating Jews and Gipsies simply as a result of their racial identity. They consider the six-million figure a gross and deliberate exaggeration of Jewish mortality.

Reference: Journal of Historical Review, Vol. I, no. 1, p7.


14. Why have so few academic historians been willing to investigate the Extermination Thesis and to publish their findings?

Although the proportion of Jews in the poorly paid academic profession is a modest one compared to their numbers in medicine and law, the influence of Jews as financial donors to universities is considerable. History is a severely overcrowded field and the competition for the few teaching positions in it is keen. As a result of the disparate propagation of the Extermination Thesis, many administrators, students and even history professors themselves accept the Extermination Thesis without being aware that there are serious reasons for disputing it. Moreover, academic historians are generally hesitant to write about topics for which reliable documentation is not readily available.


Background History of European Jewry


15. How important was the Jewish question in National Socialist thought?

It was of some importance but today we have a strong tendency to overestimate it as a feature of National Socialism. The National Socialist Party Platform of 1920 proposes in Points 4 and 5 to give Jews the status of resident foreigners, but otherwise hardly touches on the Jewish question. After all, Jews barely constituted 1% of the population of Germany in 1920. Even Julius Streicher (1885-1946), the publisher of Der Stürmer, a vulgar periodical hostile to Jews, lost his position as the Gauleiter (regional party leader) of Franconia in 1940. It is probably fair to say that the chief concerns of the National Socialists were the overcoming of the unemployment problem, which had reached severe dimensions by 1932, and the rectification of the most severe, humiliating and debilitating provisions of the Versailles Treaty, such as the painful territorial losses. A prominent legal scholar and National Socialist, Prof. Johann von Leers wrote in his book, 14 Jahre Judenrepublik (1933), that hostility to Jews for its own sake was stupid and barbaric. He further wished Jews success in an honest national development which did not threaten other nations and stated that the basic obiective of Zionism, the resettlement of Jews on land outside of Europe, was a wholesome one.


16. Is it accurate to say that the National Socialists were anti-Semitic?

The term "anti-Semitism" in the sense, "opposition to Jews," is actually a misnomer, since Arabs, whose language is closely related to Hebrew, are also Semites. In an official statement published in Neues Volk (Berlin, 12 December 1942, pp12-13) in response to an enquiry of the Iraqi prime minister, Rashid Ali el Gailani, Prof. Gross, chief of the Office of Racial Policy (Rassen-politisches Amt), pointed out that National Socialist policies with regard to the Jews were for the purpose of protecting Germany from the corrosive influences of Jewry, but that the accomplishments of Arabs were highly respected by Germans.


17. What had countries of western Europe other than Germany done about their Jewish populations long before the twentieth century?

For various reasons —religious, economic or social— the rulers of various European countries expelled their Jewish populations or in some cases forced Jews to convert to Christianity. Edward I (reigned 1272-1307) banished the Jews from England in 1290. France expelled its Jews in 1306, Spain in 1492, Portugal in 1497 and the kingdom of Naples in 1510 and 1541. Ireland and Scandinavia never had appreciable Jewish populations. Oliver Cromwell allowed Jews to return to England in 1657.

Reference: A.H.M. Ramsey, The Nameless War, pp112-115.


18. What was the position of the large Jewish population of Russia in the late nineteenth century?

The Russian Empire included then what is now Poland (except for the western and northern parts taken from Germany in 1945) and the Baltic states Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, which were incorporated once again into the USSR in 1945. Poland and Lithuania had especially large Jewish populations. In 1792 Jews were restricted to the western part of the Russian Empire but during the course of the nineteenth century their residential restrictions were eased. The reign of Alexander II (1855-1881) was a liberal one for Jews, but after his assassination a quite unfavorable climate for Jews came about, characterized by riots ("pogroms") against Jews, more or less tolerated but not instigated by governmental officials.

Reference: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1970 edition, XII, 1071; XVII, 96; XVIII, 94.


19. What country now has the largest Jewish population in the world?

The United States, the population of which is approximately 3% Jewish.


20. What caused the Jewish population of the United States to grow rapidly after 1881?

Prior to 1881 the Jewish population of the United States was very small, about 1/2 of 1% or less, but unfavorable conditions in the Russian Empire during the reigns of Alexander III (1881-1894) and Nicholas II (1894-1917) caused a huge migration to the United States, approximately 2,500,000.

Reference: Britton, Behind Communism, p72.


21. From what amazing quarter did important financial assistance come to Communist Russia during its earliest years?

A number of very wealthy Jews in Wall Street firms contributed to the Communist regime during its early years when it was already soaked with the blood of innocent people who were being killed, exiled and expropriated simply because of their former class status. The largely Jewish government was taking a terrible vengeance against those who had prospered in the days of the Czars. That Wall Street capitalists were aiding the mostly Jewish rulers of Russia in a government dedicated to the overthrow of capitalism is vivid proof of the solidarity of a race with a long record of being perpetual aliens, no matter in what land they happened to be residing. Blood is thicker than water.

Reference: Anthony C. Sutton, Wall Street and the Bolshevic Revolution , New Rochelle, 1974. See especially pp185-9. Note: Although the facts which Prof. Sutton presents speak for themselves to a considerable extent, his conclusions are pusillanimous.


22. What was the position of Jews in Germany during the time of the Second Empire (1871-1918)?

By the time the German states were united into the Second Empire in 1871, Jews had long been emancipated in them and had acquired the civil rights of other German citizens. During the rising prosperity of the newly founded empire ("Gründerzeit") Jews became quite prosperous and entered the learned professions in large numbers. A Jew, Walther Rathenau (1867-1922), held high positions in both the Imperial and Weimar governments.


23. What was the position of the Jews in Germany during the time of the Weimar Republic (1919-1933)?

Jewish influence and material wealth was so great during the time of the Weimar Republic that some Germans referred to it as the "Judenrepublik" (Jewish Republic), although Jews comprised only about 1% of its population. To mention only one small example, over 30% of the faculty of the University of Berlin was Jewish in 1932.

Reference: Walther Jantzen, Geopolitik im Kartenbild/Die Juden, Heidelberg, 1940. Contains maps and statistical diagrams on the history of Jews in Germany.


24. How prosperous were Jews in Hungary before World War II?

Between the two World Wars Jews represented about 6% of the population of Hungary. However, they owned over half the house property in Budapest and a quarter of the total national assets. Like Germany, Austria, Poland, the Free City of Danzig and some other eastern European lands, Hungary had undergone a hyper-inflation after World War I, during which Jews, with their international financial connections, had been able to buy a great deal of assets from their impoverished host populations.

Reference: Marschalko, The World Conquerors, p121.


25. During the 1918-1945 period was hostility to Jews in Europe confined to Germany?

As early as 1922 Hungary had laws to keep its universities and professions from having a gross overrepresentation of Jews. Legal measures and popular movements also opposed Jewish influences in Poland and Rumania in particular.


26. What factors caused great hostility to Jews in Central and Eastern Europe during the 1920s and 1930s?

Europeans, especially those of the middle classes, were terrorized by what had happened in Russia after 1917 to untold millions of victims of a government they considered primarily controlled and created by Jews. Further bitterness toward Jews was caused by the fact that Jews with international financial connections were able to buy huge amounts of real property in lands where inflation had reduced the value of currency to nearly nothing, notably in Germany, Austria, Hungary, Poland and Rumania.


27. What did Winston Churchill write about the position of the Jews in Communist Russia in 1920?

In an article published in the Illustrated Sunday Herald (London) on 8 February 1920, Churchill vividly summarized Jewish power in post-revolutionary Russia by saying that the Jews had "gripped the Russian people by the hair of their heads and have become practically the undisputed masters of the enormous empire." He continued with the assertion that Jews had played a great role in the creation of Bolshevism and the bringing about of the "Russian" Revolution.

Reference: W.G. Simpson, Which Way Western Man?, Washington, 1978, p663.


28. Name five prominent early Communists who were of Jewish origin.

A number of early theorists of Communism were of Jewish origin, including the most notable of all, Karl Marx (1818-1883). After the seizure of power by the Communists in 1917 in Russia the government was largely dominated by persons of Jewish origin. Lev Trotzky (Bronstein), Karl Radek (Sobelsohn) and Zinoviev (Apfelbaum) are examples of persons of Jewish origin in the early Communist government of Russia. In other lands persons of Jewish origin were also prominent in Communist movements, such as Rosa Luxemburg (1870-1919) in Germany and Bela Kun in Hungary.

Reference: Frank L. Britton, Behind Communism.


29. What attitudes did Abraham Lincoln and the National Socialists have in common with regard to the racial problems of their respective countries?

On a number of occasions President Lincoln envisaged the necessity of colonization of Negroes to prevent difficulties which would result from the continued living together of the two major races of the United States. A certain success had already been achieved in this regard, represented by the Republic of Liberia, founded in 1847. A similar solution was sought by the National Socialists as a final solution in the case of the Jews in Europe. Specifically, for some years the National Socialists contemplated Madagascar as a potential homeland for European Jews.

References: W. Stälglich, Der Auschwitz Mythos, pp35-36. W.G. Simpson, Which Way Western Man?, Washington, 1978, pp561-2.


30. What publications sponsored by a famous American industrialist were of special interest to the National Socialists?

Henry Ford (1863-1947) made an heroic but unsuccessful attempt to stop the senseless, destructive First World War. After the war he published a newspaper, The Dearborn independent, which contained articles on the Jewish involvement in international finance, corruption of cultural life in the United States, frauds in business, etc. The articles which had appeared in The Dearborn Independent were subsequently reprinted in a four-volume collection entitled The International Jew / The World's Foremost Problem (1920-1922). Although over 60 years old, these volumes still are interesting reading. The National Socialists, including Hitler himself, were strongly influenced by The International Jew, which was translated into numerous languages.

Reference: J. and S. Pool, Who Financed Hitler, London, 1978, pp85-130.


31. Where did the term "concentration camp" originate?

The word "reconcentrados" was already used by 1896 in the case of persons confined to concentration camps in Cuba. During the Boer War the British held 116,572 persons in their concentration camps, of whom approximately one-fourth died of starvation, typhus and exposure. The English word was taken over into German in the form "Konzentrationslager". In the United States, however, persons of Japanese extraction were interned beginning in 1942 in camps designated by the euphemism "relocation camps."

Reference: Journal of Historical Review, I, pp235-246.


32. What objectives did the National Socialists have in common with the Zionists?

The National Socialist government was convinced that both Europeans and Jews would be better off if the latter were to leave Europe and settle in a Jewish homeland. This idea had been popularized by Theodor Herzl (1860-1904), whose Der Judenstaat was published in 1896. So eager were the National Socialists to solve the Jewish problem in this manner that they gave Jews considerable economic incentives for emigrating to Palestine, while restricting their economic activities in Germany itself. As late as 1944 the German navy was still trying to aid Jewish emigrants by guarding their ships.

References: Instauration, January 1983, pp13-14. W. Stäglich, Der Auschwitz Mythos, pp34-36.


33. What was the Jewish population of Palestine around 1939 and what is the Jewish population of the corresponding area now?

The heavy Jewish migration into Palestine is reflected in census data. The Jewish population of Palestine rose from 83,790 in 1922 to 445,457 in 1939, in the latter year 30% of the total population. By 1946 this number had risen to 678,000. During the period 1948-1960 alone, migration to the newly formed Jewish state exceeded a million, while during the period 1948-1971 the total was one and a half million, the earlier migration being largely from Europe. The heavy emigration of Jews from the German-speaking areas of Europe to Palestine and the United States during the 1930s is also reflected in the German census of 17 May 1939. This census (which now included the territory of the old Reich, Austria and the Sudetenland) enumerated 330,000 persons of the Jewish race, representing a decline of 391,000 Jews in these areas since 1933. in addition, the German census of 1939 enumerated 72.738 persons with two Jewish grandparents and 42,811 with one Jewish grandparent. From 1931 to 1941, 161,262 immigrant Jewish aliens were admitted to the United States. The present population of the Jewish state is over three million, of which about 85% is Jewish. Heavy Jewish migration also took place to the United States and other parts of the world after 1945.

References: Year-by-year statistics on the population of Palestine for the period 1922-1940 are given in G.W. Robnett, Zionist Rape of the Holy Land , Pasadena, 1976, p47. A summary of the German census data is given in Otmar von Verschuer, Leitfaden der Rassenhygiene, 1944 edition, p139.


34. What measures did world Jewry undertale against Germany as early as 1933?

An international boycott of German goods was undertaken, which was especially effective in some areas, since the retail trade in many countries was and is in Jewish hands to a considerable extent.

References: J. Beaty, The Iron Curtain Over America, pp62 ff. Historische Tatsachen Nr. 10, pp18 ff.


35. Who were some of the most prominent Jews in the Roosevelt Administration and what role did they play with regard to the status of Jews in Europe?

Henry Morgenthau (1891-1967) had been a close friend of Roosevelt and from 1934 to 1945 he served in Roosevelt's cabinet as Secretary of the Treasury, but he was also active in other areas, especially foreign policy. He was author of the Morgenthau Plan, which envisaged the dismanteling of German industry after the war and which was initialed by Roosevelt in September 1944. Together with the demand for unconditional surrender of Germany and its allies announced in January 1943, the Morgenthau Plan undoubtedly had the effect of prolonging the war and hence causing higher mortality not only among Aryan military personnel, but also of increasing Jewish mortality amid the chaotic conditions at the end of the war. Harry Dexter White, a Russian Jew, was Undersecretary of the Treasury and a leader in Communist circles of the Washington area. White is supposed to be the man who actually worked out the Morgenthau Plan. He later saw to it that plates for printing the occupation paper money for Germany got into Soviet hands. Roosevelt also had a host of other Jewish advisors, such as Samuel I. Roseman and Bernard Baruch.


36. What were some of the main provisions of the "Nuremberg Laws" of 1935?

The term "Nuremberg Laws" refers to a law of 15 September 1935, entitled, "Gesetz zum Schutze des deutschen Blutes und der deutschen Ehre" (Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honor), and subsequent laws pertaining to this topic. The laws were directed in part against intermarriage and sexual relations between Germans and Jews. Jews were defined as persons with at least three Jewish grandparents or two Jewish grandparents under certain stipulations.


37. Were there any American antecedents for the Nuremberg Laws?

Many of the states of the United States had laws against miscegenation, that is, marriage or sexual relations between persons of different races, notably the Negro and Caucasian races in this case. Such laws were passed in order to retain the identity and special strengths of the races and to prevent the psychological problems of children who could not fully identify themselves with one race or the other. Such American laws had been enacted and enforced long before the Nuremberg Laws. They were declared unconstitutional by the United States Supreme Court after World War II, perhaps as an overreaction against the policies of National Socialist Germany.


38. What did the May Law promulgated in Russia in 1882 have in common with the Nuremberg Laws?

On 3 May 1882, Czar Alexander III assented to a temporary order concerning the Jews. Like the Nuremberg Laws, the Russian May Law originated in the wake of a renewed nationalistic sentiment, had a tendency to isolate the Jewish population from the host population and had the long-range effect of stimulating a massive emigration, largely to the United States.


39. Did the National Socialists consider the Jews an inferior race?

Baron Otmar von Verschuer, M.D., (1896-1969) may be regarded as one of the chief scientific spokesmen for the racial and eugenic policies of National Socialist Germany. He was a professor at the Unversity of Frankfurt am Main and as of 1944 he was Director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Genetics and Eugenics. Several of his writings have a bearing on the question posed above. In the second volume of the series Forschungen zur Judenfrage (Hamburg, Hanseatische Verlagsanstalt, 1937) he published an article on documentary research which can throw light on the biological aspects of the Jewish question (pages 216-222). On page 218 he states: "Our national attitude toward the biological aspect of the Jewish question is thus fully independent of all observations which have to do with advantages or disadvantages of Jews and with their favorable or unfavorable characteristics." In Volume 3 of the series (1938) he published an article simply entitled Rassenbiologie der Juden (Racial Biology of the Jews), pages 137-151. In this article he discusses in detail patterns of insanity, criminal behavior and physical pathology in Jews. (A valuable bibliography is appended to this article.) In his discussion he points out not only weaknesses of Jews but also their strengths, such as lower incidences of epilepsy, alcoholism, cancer of the uterus and tuberculosis, as well as their greater adaptability to urban life. In a handbook on genetically determined diseases, Leitfaden der Rassenhygiene (Principles of Eugenics), the second edition of which was published by the Georg Thieme Verlag in Leipzig in 1944, a brief discussion of the Jewish question is given on pages 136-141. He reiterates his position by stating that the goal of preservation and improvement of the national racial heritage is "not dependent on considerations of superiority or inferiority of a race which is foreign to us" and that every crossing of a foreign race into a nation "leads to the alteration of the biological bases of the character of this nation and its civilization." We might note, by the way, that laws against miscegenation and laws which provided for eugenic measures are by no means foreign to us Americans, since many of our states had such laws until they were eliminated after World War II, possibly as an overreaction against National Socialism.


40. What was the nature of German scholarly and scientific research on the Jewish question during the National Socialist period?

There is a vast body of research which was published during the National Socialist period. Some of it is of considerable, indeed, well nigh unique value because it is not written with self-serving objectives by Jews themselves and because much of it was written by outstanding scholars and scientists. One of the most important series of scientific studies in this area is the series, Forschungen zur Judenfrage, the first annual volume of which was published in 1937. Some of the articles deal with the ethnic history of the Jews, some are biographical sketches of such figures as Spinoza, Moses Mendelsohn, Marx, Disraeli, Rathenau and Einstein, some articles deal with the position of jews in European society, while still others deal with biological and cultural characteristics of Jews. On the whole, the tone of the articles in the Forschungen zur Judenfrage is restrained and objective; there is even some praise for Jewish abilities. An article on Goethe's attitudes toward the Jews concludes with the observation that Goethe did not hate Jews and an article on Richard Wagner concedes that Wagner was a man of the nineteenth century and was no more a National Socialist than Nietzsche or Lagarde. Most German research done during the National Socialist period is neglected and by no means readily accessible. Some of it is worthwhile enough to deserve a translation into English.


41. What provoked the so-called Crystal Night (9-10 November 1938) in Germany?

A 17-year-old Jew by the name of Herschel Grynszpan was goaded into murdering an official of the German embassy in Paris. This ignited an already tense situation in Germany. Pogroms resulted in which the windows of many Jewish shops were broken, from which circumstances the phrase "Kristallnacht" arose. It is one of the ironies of World War II that Grynszpan later fell into German hands but was treated so leniently that he survived the war.

Reference: Instauration, December 1982, p16.


42. What were the objectives and the results of the Évian Conference?

Évian is a spa in eastern France which was the site of a conference convened in July 1938, at the initiative of President Roosevelt. Thirty-two countries sent representatives to the conference, the principle objective of which was the resettlement of Jews from Germany and Austria. The results of the conference were minimal, however, since there was considerable resistance to the acceptance of Jews as immigrants from Europe. This provided Hitler the opportunity to taunt the rest of the world for its hypocracy about the Jewish question. Even the U.S.A. was not prepared to relax its stringent immigration quotas. Jewish historians are full of bitter observations on the situation which prevailed in 1938, but the general distrust of and hostility toward Jews throughout the world during the 1930s was vividly demonstrated by the lack of real results of the Évian conference. Later on, the British were so intent on keeping Jews out of Palestine that they prohibited the landing of the Struma in March 1942. Shortly thereafter the refugee ship sank with 769 passengers. British warships also sank a French liner, the Patria, with a loss of 2,875 lives on 25 November 1940, near Haifa.

References: The Holocaust, published by Yad Vashem in Jerusalem, 1977, pp64-65. Anonymous, The Myth of the Six Million, p44.


43. What resettlement plans did the National Socialists have in mind for Jews and what frustrated these plans?

Madagascar was considered as an area for resettlement of the Jews as early as 1938, and this plan seemed to be feasible after the defeat of France, since Madagascar was a French colony. However, the Vichy government resisted this plan. Wartime shipping difficulties, of course, were also a factor. Madagascar had also been considered by the Zionists themselves.

Reference: W. Stäglich, Der Auschwitz Mythos, p35.


44. Did Hitler threaten the massive physical extermination of Jews in his oft-cited address to the Reichstag on 30 January 1939?

Hitler's exact words on this occasion were as follows: "Wenn es dem internationalen Finanzjudentum innerhalb und ausserhalb Europas gelingen sollte, die Völker noch einmal in einen Weltkrieg zu stürzen, dann wird das Ergebnis nicht die Bolschewisierung der Erde und damit der Sieg des Judentums sein, sondern die Vernichtung der Jüdischen Rasse in Europa." ("lf international Jewry inside and outside of Europe were once more to succeed in plunging the nations into a world war, then the result will not be the Bolshevization of the earth and thus the victory of Jewry, but rather the annihilation of the Jewish race in Europe.") First of all, it must be noted that the statement is a prediction, as indicated by the German future tense auxiliary "wird". The statement does not specify by whom, how or when such an annihilation would take place, that is, if such a war were to come about as a responsibility of international Jewry. Such a dire prediction must also be understood in its context. As a combat veteran who had been wounded and even temporarily blinded, Hitler was well acquainted with the sufferings brought about by war. He wished to rectify some of the most degrading provisions of the Versailles Treaty by restoration of German defensive capabilities and restoration of some of the territories taken from Germany after 1918, but he and the German nation as a whole were stunned by the English and French declarations of war on 3 September 1939. It has been observed that every one of the millions of European Jews who survived the war is evidence against the Extermination Thesis.

Reference: W. Stiäglich, Der Auschwitz Mythos, pp85-89.


45. What events at the very outset of World War II had a tendency to give an especially desperate nature to the course of the subsequent fighting in eastern Europe?

A large number of ethnic Germans lived in various areas of Poland, but especially the area between the two parts of Germany known as the Polish Corridor, which extended to the Baltic Sea. During the first days of the fighting, many of these ethnic Germans were slain by Polish soldiers and civilians. The mass murder was especially great in the city of Bromberg (Polish form: Bydgoszcz). Over 6.000 ethnic Germans were murdered in September 1939. Historians refer to the massacre in Bromberg as the "Bromberg Bloody Sunday" (3 September).


46. What country, which was eventually (1941) occupied entirely by German military forces, had the largest number of Jews in Europe?

Poland, which had an estimated 3,500,000 around 1930. Other Jewish populations at the time were estimated as follows:

USSR 2,725,000 Austria 300,000

Romania 834,000 Lithuania 155,000

Germany 564,374 France 150.000

Hungary 500,000 Netherlands 115,000

Czechoslovakia 350,000 Greece 110,000

Great Britain 300,000 Latvia 100,000

We must bear in mind, however, that statistics on Jewish populations are inherently open to question and interpretation, since even definitions of Jews vary and since many countries did not identify members of races and religions in their censuses.

Reference: Der Grosse Brockhaus, 1931, Vol. 9, p473.


47. What book was published before America formal participation in World War II which proposed a truly genocidal fate for a defeated Germany?

Theodore N. Kaufman's Germany Must Perish was published by the Argyle Press in 1941. This book proposed the eradication of the German population by the sterilization of both males and females of reproductive age. Such threats were well-known to leading figures in the German government, who exploited them to stimulate the war effort. The Morgenthau Plan, which was initialed by Roosevelt in September 1944, proposed a somewhat different procedure, namely the starvation of the German population by the destruction of its industry. Such people as Kaufman, Morgenthau and Roosevelt must have also had a complete disdain for the lives of American soldiers, because the latter were obliged to invade and conquer a Germany whose defensive will had thus been intensified to the point of absolute desperation. Such threats undoubtedly cost many lives of those involved in the war, including especially and ironically the lives of Jews themselves.

Reference: Leon de Poncins, State Secrets (1977), pp95-149.


48. To what extent were such threats carried out against Germany?

The genocidal intent of the Allies was already manifested in the bombing of poorly defended German cities, such as Dresden (13 February 1945). For years after the war German factories were being dismantled while the German population was on the verge of starvation. Economic stagnation and chaos were also prolonged by the lack of a currency reform. Millions of Germans were murdered during the course of the expulsions from the areas east of the Oder-Neisse Line. The Kaufman proposal was not carried out, but the Morgenthau Plan definitely had its effects and influence. By the late 1940s the western Allies finally came to their senses after they could no longer delude themselves about the grim Soviet presense in Europe. Now, nearly four decades later, we Americans must face daily the possibility of a holocaust on our own soil by the USSR, a circumstance brought about in part by the energetic propagation of the Extermination Thesis, which, in turn, was one aspect of the deluge of propaganda against those who had opposed Communism.


49. What identification were Jews in Germany forced to wear in 1941?

They were forced to wear a yellow, six-pointed star as of 15 September 1941.

Reference: Historische Tatsachen Nr. 10, p26.


50. Were there antecedents for this in another European country?

Yes. The Statute of Jewry passed in England in 1275 compelled Jews to wear a yellow badge, confined them to certain areas and forbade usury and ownership of land to them.

Reference: Ramsay, The Nameless War, pp112-155, where the text of the law is given.


51. Were many Jews interned in Germany before the outbreak of the Second World War?

Before September 1939, very few Jews were interned in concentration camps, only a matter of several percent of the Jewish population of Germany. Quite a number of leading Communists of various racial origins were interned. We must bear in mind, however, that much of the Communist and trade union leadership in Germany, as in other lands at that time, was of Jewish origin. Massive internment of Jews did not begin until well after the beginning of the war between Germany and the USSR in June 1941. Germany was relatively dilatory in this matter when we compare the quite swift internment of persons of Japanese descent in the United States.


52. What Military and economic factors motivated the German government and its allies to intern Jews quite some time after the beginning of the war?

Jews were not permitted to serve in the German armed forces. Communism was viewed as a Jewish development and it was felt that many Jews would be inclined to sabotage the German war effort. Massive internment of Jews, however, took place only after the beginning of the war between Germany and the USSR. The Nuremberg Laws of 1935 had excluded Jews from being citizens of the Reich. For that reason they were considered potentially hostile aliens. Many other belligerent powers, including the United States, interned enemy aliens and even native-born persons thought to be sympathetic to enemy nations. As the war became ever more desperate, Jews were put into labor camps in order to make maximal economic use of them. Hungarian Jews were not interned until well into 1944, when Hungarian territory was about to be invaded by the Red Army.


53. How did the Morgenthau Plan cost the lives of many Germans, as well as the lives of people of other nations, including Jews and Americans?

In January 1943, some 2-1/2 years before the end of the war in Europe, the demand for unconditional surrender of Germany and its allies had been made at the Casablanca Conference. Such an uncompromising position in itself was bound to prolong the conflict and above all make it very costly in terms of lives of all those involved. In addition, however, in September 1944, at the Quebec Conference Roosevelt and Churchill initialed a plan presented by Henry Morgenthau to divest Germany of much of its industrial potential and thus bring about the starvation of its population, since the German population had become so large since about 1870 that imports of food, and thus the exports of finished goods, were necessary to sustain it. German political leaders were well aware of such a fate planned for the German people. It is the usual procedure in rationally conducted warfare to try to pursuade an enemy that he will be well treated after he lays down his arms in order to shorten the conflict and make it less costly even for the victors. One might almost assume that the Morgenthau Plan was a deliberate, sinister attempt to prolong the war and cause an even greater shedding of Aryan blood, both American and European, on the assumption that greater sacrifices would bring about some sort of political advantage. As the bombing of German transportation facilties became ever more intense toward the end of the war, it became ever more difficult to supply the inmates of concentration and labor camps with food and medicine, not to mention the psychological atmosphere that was thus created. Under such circumstances the mortality in the camps increased markedly, including, ironically, Jewish mortality.

References: L. de Poncins, State Secrets, pp95-149. J.J. Martin, The Saga of Hog Island, pp190-197. J. Beaty, The Iron Curtain Over America, pp74 and 78.


The Case against the Extermination Thesis


54. What popular book published in 1951 cast doubts on the Extermination Thesis?

Col. John Beaty's The Iron Curtain Over America. On pages 134-135 of this book Col. Beaty traces the demographic data on Jewish populations before and after the war and raises the question as "where Hitler got the 6,000,000 Jews he is said to have killed."


55. Why was Col. Beaty in a peculiarly good position to express opinions on this question?

He was in high-level military intelligence positions for five years, including those involving the writings of intelligence reports derived from a great variety of sources. His book was recommended by General George Stratemeyer and others.


56. What conclusions did Prof. Arthur Butz reach about the extent of Jewish mortality during World War II after extensive investigations lasting for years?

Prof. Butz has stated that "about 350,000 or perhaps 400,000 inmates died in the German camps during the war, some minority of that number being Jews." He further stated that the total Jewish mortality from all causes is not known. It is quite possible that the number of Jews who died during the Second World War is smaller than the number of anti-Communists who died as a result of "Operation Keelhaul," which is the name often applied to the handing over of such groups as the anti-Communist forces assembled by General Vlassov (1901-1946) to Communist authorities by the Americans and British. Although nearly every adult American has heard of the plight of the Jews during the war and is familiar with their meaning of the word "Holocaust," it is doubtful that more than one American in a hundred would know what "Operation Keelhaul" means. After all, its victims were just anti-Communist Aryans.

Reference: Journal of Historical Review, Vol, I, no. 1, pp7 and 22.


57. What did the International Red Cross have to report with regard to the "Holocaust" question?

A report on the visit of an International Red Cross delegate to Auschwitz in September 1944, pointed out that internees were permitted to receive packages and that rumors of gas chambers could not be verified.

References: Thies Christophersen, Auschwitz, 1979, p11. (Christophersen was stationed as an experimental agronomist at Auschwitz from January to December, 1944.) An earlier, German edition of this booklet also exists. Christophersen reproduces a sample of the French text of Camps de Concentration 1939-1945. See also A. Butz, Hoax of the Twentieth Century , where various Red Cross reports are discussed in detail in various places. Myth of the Six Million, pp98 ff.


58. What statistics do earlier editions of the Encyclopaedia Britannica and its annual supplements provide pertaining to Jewish populations before and after the war?

These references by no means confirm the widely publicized claims of a mortality of six million Jews. On page 63B, Vol, 13 of the 1945 edition, Jacob R. Marcus, Ph.D., Professor of Jewish History, Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, stated: "From 1931 to 1941, 580,207 immigrant aliens were admitted to the United States; of these 161,262 were Jews. Inasmuch as about 4,000,000 Jews were continuously suffering under reactionary European governments at this time, this small number of emigrants into the United States over a period of 11 years did little to alleviate their miserable condition." The Britannica Book of the Year 1946, page 417, stated that 1,500,000 Jews remained in Europe outside of the USSR. As to the number of Polish Jews who survived the war, there were some 200,000 who had moved to central Europe alone by late summer of 1946 according to Britannica Book of the Year 1947, pages 654-655.


59. What did the German government do when German intelligence learned in early 1943 about the mass graves of Polish officers in territory which had been held by Soviet forces at the time of their deaths?

In April 1943, German intelligence learned of mass graves in a forest near Katyn, a locality nearly 400 miles almost due south of St. Petersburg (present Communist name: Leningrad). Further investigation, including exumation of the bodies, ascertained the presence of 4,143 bodies of Polish officers who had been captured during the Soviet invasion of Poland in September 1939. There was clear evidence, for example the age of the trees growing over the graves, that the officers had been murdered by shots through the neck around May 1940, long before the German invasion of Russia. (It has been subsequently ascertained that the total number of Polish officers murdered in various places by the Communists was approximately 15,000.) Immediately the German radio announced reports of the mass graves and summoned many forensic experts, journalists and even prisoners of war from various countries, neutral and belligerent, to witness the gruesome sight. In 1943, too, an official German report was published, Amtliches Material zum Massenmord von Katyn. Obviously, the Germans felt it would be to their advantage to inform the world as best they could about their discovery and about all of the evidence pertaining to the time and circumstances of themurders. Incidently, the Katyn affair had far-reaching subsequent results: The Soviet government broke off diplomatic relations with the Polish government in exile and President Roosevelt played a cynical role in suppressing the evidence against the USSR.

References: Louis FitzGibbon, Katyn, Torrance, Noontide Press, 1979. Journal of Historical Review, Vol. I, no. 1, pp31-42.


60. If Auschwitz had, In fact, been an extermination camp, why would that fact and the evidence for it have been spread throughout the world after January 1945?

When the Soviet forces captured the terrain of the Auschwitz camps and industrial complex in late January 1945, the war was by no means over and the propaganda value of disseminating evidence of extermination activities (which the Germans had attempted to exploit correspondingly in the case of Katyn) would have been of immense value to the USSR in various ways, such as countering the German claims about Katyn and in the coming diplomatic negotiations toward the end of the war. The Soviet government, however, made no efforts corresponding to the German efforts in the case of Katyn. Quite to the contrary, they did not permit western officials to view the Auschwitz terrain. They evidently had nothing worth showing.

Reference: W. Stäglich, Der Auschwitz Mythos, pp5 ff.


61. What former American official in occupied Germany had the courage to contest the usual versions of the Extermination Thesis?

Stephen F. Pinter wrote a letter which appeared in The Sunday Visitor and which was reprinted in an article entitled, "Jewish Population in the United States," in the October 1959, issue of American Mercury. In his letter Mr. Pinter stated that he had been in Dachau for 17 months after the war as a U.S. War Department Attorney. He pointed out that there was no gas chamber at Dachau nor was there a gas chamber in any other of the concentration camps in Germany. He further stated: "We were told that there was a gas chamber at Auschwitz, but since that was in the Russian zone of occupation, we were not permitted to investigate, since the Russians would not permit it. ... From what I was able to determine during six postwar years in Germany and Austria, there were a number of Jews killed, but the figure of a million was certainly never reached. I interviewed thousands of Jews, former inmates of concentration camps in Germany and Austria, and consider myself as well qualified as any man on this subject."


62. When were exhibits at Auschwitz open to the public and what benefits does the "Polish" government derive from them?

Some German and Austrian prisoners of war were interned temporarily at Auschwitz just after the war, but they reported nothing that would confirm large-scale extermination activities there. For years the Soviet authorities would not allow visitors to the terrain. However, for some years now a museum has been open to the public at Auschwitz which not only brings profits from tourism in Poland but has the added advantages of aiding in the usual Soviet propaganda objectives, such as obliteration by contrast of Soviet war crimes.

Reference: W. Stiäglich, Der Auschwitz Mythos, p9. At the end of this book there are pictures of the Auschwitz terrain after the war and of the exhibits at the museum.


63. What do photographs of liberated internees at Auschwitz show?

At the end of W. Stäglich's Der Auschwitz Mythos there is a valuable pictorial section. Four of the pictures show liberated internees at Auschwitz. Amongst them are old women and children, who would, of course, have been the least likely persons to have been spared if a general extermination program had been extant. They do not appear to have been badly nourished. Also, at the very end of The Holocaust, published by Yad Vashem in Jerusalem in 1977, there is a picture of children who had been liberated from the camp. They, too, do not seem badly nourished. The validity of Stäglich's pictures is thus confirmed by a Zionist source. Auschwitz, being far to the east, was probably better supplied than camps to the west, where Allied bombing severely hampered transportation.


64. What has an article by the historian Gitta Sereny admitted about all of the concentration camps which were captured intact by the Allied forces?

In an article by her in the New Statesman of 17 July 1981, there is a caption under a picture showing SS guards being made to bury emaciated corpses after the liberation of Belsen. The caption points out that all (alleged) extermination camps "were totally destroyed before any Allied armies arrived." In another part of the article she concedes: "It's necessary to repeat what has already been stated with detail in these pages (New Statesman, 2 November 1979): that terrible disservice has been done by those who have exaggerated, carelessly misunderstood, or even invented Holocaust events." In view of such concessions by a resolute and well-known adherent of the Extermination Thesis, one must ask himself if any part of the Thesis is valid, especially in view of the large number of aspects of the "Holocaust" material which had been supported by heaps of testimony in and out of courts and which has now been proved to be false.


65. Has any documentary evidence ever been discovered that Hitler specifically ordered the extermination of Jews within the territory held by his armed forces?

No. Even the Zionist historians concede (or perhaps "claim" would be the more appropriate word) that no such documentation has ever been found.

Reference: The Holocaust, Jerusalem, Yad Vashem, 1977, p46.


66. If Hitler had ever given such an order, why would it have become widely known and reported?

Many people would have had an interest in doing so. If such an order could be documented, whatever German guilt existed in this area could be directed at Hitler alone. Such an order would have a tendency to act as a legal exoneration since accused persons could justly claim that they were simply obeying military commands under the threat of death penalties.


67. What do aerial photographs of Auschwitz taken in 1944 by the U.S. Air Force demonstrate?

Aerial photographs of the Auschwitz-Birkenau area taken by the Allies on 4 April, 26 July, 25 August and 13 September of that year tend to discredit the claims that Auschwitz was an extermination complex because there is no smoke from crematories or the like, although the photographs are quite clear and detailed and cover a large area. If such photographs would have revealed evidence of mass extermination of internees at the time, Allied air forces could have bombed the railway facilities leading to the camp and other facilities involved in such extermination. The photographs were published by the Central Intelligence Agency in 1979.

Reference: Journal of Historical Review, Vol. I, p18 and Vol. III, pp44-45. Historische Tatsachen Nr. 9, pp37-39, where some of the photgraphs are reproduced and discussed.


68. What economic and other disadvantages would Germany have suffered if it had carried out an extermination program against Jews during the Second World War?

By December 1941, Germany was faced with a two-front war in which the odds were overwhelmingly against Germany. German commanders and statesmen were very well aware of these odds even if they did not dare say so publicly, at least not until 20 July 1944. Various Allied declarations after 1941 precluded any compromises or negotiations. There were also threats of postwar trials of German statesmen and military commanders. Such circumstances had an inhibiting effect against the commission of war crimes on the part of the Germans, who knew well that they were likely to be subiected to punishment by a victorious, vindictive enemy if found guilty. However, the war had a tragic momentum of its own and all prisoners and internees could be used for various tasks, such as the manufacture and repair of uniforms. For whatever reason —moral, self-protective or economic— Heinrich Himmler (1900-1945) is known to have given an order on 28 December 1942, to reduce mortality in the concentration camps "at any price." Since 16 February 1942, all concentration camps had been integrated into the war economy and armament industry as a result of labor shortages.

Reference: Hellmut Diwald, Geschichte der Deutschen, 1978, p165.


69. To what extent did Germany and its allies have a widely recognized right to execute some Jews?

One ugly aspect of war is especially important where Communists are involved. That is guerrilla or partisan warfare, in which various acts of sabotage and murder are committed by persons who are not wearing uniforms. Communists were especially successful at conducting this sort of action during the Spanish Civil War, in China during the 1940s and in Russia during 1941 ff. (The word "guerrilla" originated in Spain during the Napoleonic wars.) Modern warfare, with its use of railways, trucks, tanks and complicated weapons, is such that sabotage by guerrillas can be especially effective. The thinly spread German forces in Russia were put at a severe disadvantage by this type of action. As much as one-tenth of their forces were engaged in countermeasures and their losses from guerrilla warfare have been estimated at as much as a quarter of a million men or more. Many of the guarrillas were Jewish. On the basis of the Hague rules of land warfare adopted in 1899 and 1907, guerrilla warfare is condemned as illegal, and the right to execute apprehended guerrillas is widely recognized. A field commander who does not deal harshly with guerrillas would not be fulfilling his duty toward the men in his command. Guerrilla warfare undoubtedly accounted for a large amount of Jewish mortality during the Second World War.

References: Article by Robert B. Asprey on guerriua warfare in 1970 edition of Encyclopaedia Britannica. The Holocaust, published by Yad Vashem in Jerusalem, pp72-73. W. Stäglich, Der Auschwitz Mythos, pp113, 399-400. For a valuable discussion of the activities of the largely Jewish Soviet political commissars in this connection, see The Liberty Bell , December, 1982, pp12-13.


70. Why are the alleged minutes of the Wannsee Conference of 20 January 1942, often cited in attempts to substantiate the Extermination Thesis?

Lacking any documentation of an extermination order from Hitler himself, proponents of the Extermination Thesis frequently cite the minutes of a conference which is alleged to have taken piece at Wannsee, a suburb of Berlin, on 20 January 1942. On page 7 of the minutes is the proposal that Jews were to be organized into large labor columns and were to be led into designated areas while building roads ("strassenbauend"), during which time a large number would be eliminated by natural reduction of numbers ("durch natürliche Verminderung").


71. What evidence exists that these minutes are a forgery, at least in part?

There is a great deal of evidence that this document is a forgery, no matter to what extent it would be incriminating, even if it were genuine. The figures on Jewish populations in various European countries seem to be grossly inaccurate. The estimate of the number of Jews in France, for example, is put at 865,000, while reliable estimates of the Jewish population of France around the year 1930 were only about 150,000. This point is even to be found in Zionist sources. On page 49 of The Holocaust (published by Yad Vashem in 1977) the figures on Jewish populations are reproduced from the document, but on page 55 the statement is made that there "were approximately 300,000 Jews in France before the war, most of them inhabitants of long standing." The proposal for the "stassenbauend" movements of labor columns seems very improbable. The document is headed "Geheime Reichssache" (secret), but there follows the note that 30 copies were to be prepared. There is no signature of the person responsible for keeping the minutes, no date and no indication of the office in which it was prepared.

Reference: W. Stäglich, Der Auschwitz Mythos, pp38-65, where the document is reproduced and the evidence against its authenticity is discussed in detail.


72. What absurd claim did a famous German novelist broadcast on 27 September 1942, with regard to the killing of Jews?

Thomas Mann (1875-1955); Nobel Prize for Literature (1929) broadcast the report that 16,000 French Jews were killed by gas in a railroad train on an open stretch of track after the train had been hermetically sealed. How a whole train, presumably with about 80 to 100 cars or more, could be sealed hermetically on an open stretch of track is difficult to imagine. It is a shame that Mann lent his name to the dissemination of such anti-German propaganda.

Reference: W. Stäglich, Der Auschwitz Mythos, p150.


73. What numismatic evidence has a bearing on the Extermination Thesis?

Numerous types of monetary instruments, both paper notes and coins, were issued for use in ghettos and concentration and labor camps. If an immediate extermination of persons brought to the camps had been planned there would obviously have been no use for such instruments. Especially elaborately printed notes were issued for Lodz, Theresienstadt (dated 1943) and Oranienburg. Notes for Westerbork (Netherlands) were dated 1944. Aluminum coins dated 1943 were struck for Lodz (Litzmannstadt).

Reference: The Numismatist (published by the American Numismatic Association) April, 1981, pp875-881; April, 1982, pp896-905 and 933-935.


74. What evidence is there that few Americans took the position of the Jews in Europe seriously as late as December 1941?

Various items had appeared in American newspapers about the status of European Jews. The New York Times of 28 February 1941, for example, carried an item on the planned transfer to Poland of Viennese Jews who could not afford to emigrate. It was explained that their emigration was "purely a question of money." Right down to the beginning of formal American involvement in the war public opinion polls revealed that the vast majority of Americans, probably about 5/6 of them, wanted to stay out of the European war. Even well into 1944, when Allied reconnaisance airplanes were able to fly over Auschwitz in eastern Europe and take clear photographs there was apparently no conviction in official quarters that Auschwitz was an extermination camp. If such an opinion would have existed, rail connections thither could have been bombed.


75. What was the role of the Vatican with regard to the plight of European Jews during the Second World War?

If there would have been an extermination plan, the Vatican would certainly have been in a position to know about it through information passed along through members of its hierarchy throughout Europe. Pius XII (1939-1958), however made no protests against a putative extermination program, about which he would certainly not have been indifferent. Zionists have often criticized Pius XII's "silence" but have lately seemed more conciliatory. Note, for example, the 1983 CBS television film, The Scarlet and the Black.

Reference: A. Butz, Hoax of the Twentieth Century, pp278-290.


76. What was the attitude of the clergy toward the euthanasia program instituted by Germany after the outbreak of the Second World War?

It is said that National Socialist authorities asked theologians for their views on euthanasia and received varied answers. Later in the war the Catholic clergy publicly protested against the program and it was stopped. To put the euthanasia program in its proper perspective, we must bear in mind that after 3 September 1939, Germany was faced with the sort of blockade by the grossly superior British navy which had been largely instrumental in causing the defeat of Germany in 1918 by starving the civilian population and by other resultant attrition. Since about 1870 the German population had grown to the extent that domestically produced foodstuffs were simply insufficient to provide a healthy diet for the population. Moreover, nursing personnel was needed for military purposes.


77. Why is it difficult to determine just how many Jews entered the United States as immigrants from Europe during the 1930s and 1940s?

In November 1943, the practice of identifying Jews in the records of the United States Immigration and Naturalization Service was stopped. There are actually no official figures on the number of Jews in the United States. Beety suggested that the number of Jews in the United States might be considerably higher than generally realized. Illegal immigration is also a factor which beclouds the data.

References: A. Butz, Hoax of the Twentieth Century, p226. John Beaty, The Iron Curtain Over America, 1951, pp41-42.


78. For what purposes was the commercial product Zyklon B used in the German armed forces?

This disinfectant was delivered in crystaline form and contained hydrocyanic acid as an active ingredient. It was used in the Reichswehr as early as 1924 for fumigating clothing, quarters and effects, but it could be used only by well-trained personnel.

Reference: W. Stäglich, Der Auschwitz Mythos, p78.


79. What technical difficulties would have been involved in the use of this product if, as has been claimed in many Zionist materials on the "Holocaust," it had been widely used for massive exterminations of interned Jews?

After the use of Zyklon B a period of about 20 hours is needed to air out the space in which it was used, since it has the characteristic of adhering to objects. Only specially trained personnel were to use the highly dangerous material, as was stated on the labels on the cans. Hydrocyanic acid has been used for executions in the United States but elaborate preparations and equipment are needed for this purpose. The door of the disinfection chamber at Dachau was clearly marked with a caution sign and a skull and crossbones to prevent accidents.

References: A. Butz, Hoax of the Twentieth Century, pp191 and 218 (pictures). Journal of Historical Review, Vol. I, pp23-50 and 103-114:; Vol. II, no. 4, pp311-317.


80. A Rumanian historian has published statistics on the deaths of Rumanian Jews from all causes during the Secorrd World War, What were his findings?

Dr. Serban Andronescu found that only some 250,000 Jews resided in Rumania during the Second World War, and that some 15,000 of them lost their lives from all causes during this time. (In comparing this with prewar statistics, we must bear in mind that Transylvania was given to Hungary in 1940.)

Reference: Journal of Historical Review, Vol. III, no. 2, pp211-223. See also the clarifying remarks by Mart Weber in the Journal of Historical Review, Vol. III, no. 3, pp233-237.


81, How do Dr. Andronescu's findings compare with corresponding statistics in Zionist propaganda materials on the "Holocaust"?

The Anti-Defamation League has claimed that 300,000 Jews living in Rumania were murdered. Dr. Andronescu's estimate is thus 5% of the ADL estimate. If this ratio were applied to the six million figure, it would thus result in a Jewish mortality of 300,000 for all of Europe.

Reference: The even higher figure of 425,000 for the mortality of Rumanian Jews is to be found on p63 of The Holocaust, Jerusalem, Yad Vashem, 1977.


82. What does a non-Jewish source estimate in the case of the wartime mortality of Jews living in Hungary?

Louis Marschalko estimates the mortality of Jews in Hungary at 60,000. The ADL estimate is 450,000.

Reference: L. Marschalko, The World Conquerors, p160.


83. What happened to members of concentration camp administrations who mistreated internees during the war?

Concentration camp personnel were prohibited from arbitrarily punishing or exercising cruelty against the internees. There are quite a number of cases of prosecutions by German courts during the war of persons accused of violating such regulations. Heinrich Himmler himself is said to have been keenly aware that excesses against prisoners and internees could be held against him after the war.

Reference: W. Stäglich, Der Auschwitz Mythos, pp15 and 415.


84. What parallels can be drawn between the plight of the Jewish interness during World War II and that of prisoners of war during the American Civil War?

Conditions in prisoner of war camps deteriorated badly during the course of the Civil War. The mortality rates of the prisoners increased considerably as a result of disease and insufficient diet. Conditions in both the Confederate and Union camps deteriorated, but especially in the former as a result of the transportation and general economic problems of the Confederacy. During the closing phases of World War II, German rail transport facilities were very badly impaired by Allied bombing, making even the supplying of the armies defending German territory difficult. The Allied bombing of German rail facilities was an important factor in the final collapse of the German armed forces.

Reference: Journal of Historical Review, Vol. II, no. 2, pp137-153.


85. What disease caused the deaths of many persons interned in concentration camps toward the end of World War II?

Typhus, which is louse-borne and was a frequent concommitant of the hunger, filth and cold from which Europe suffered widely during World War II. (A number of diseases, however, became a greater than usual threat to life as a result of the malnutrition from which nearly all of Europe suffered during the war.) It was due to the highly contagious nature of typhus that crematoria were installed and used extensively for the disposal of the bodies of the victims of the disease. Cremation was also used extensively in the disposal of bodies of victims of the bombing of Dresden in February 1945.


86. What caused Anne Frank's death just several weeks before the end of the war?

Anne Frank (born 1929 in Frankfurt am Main) was arrested in Amsterdam along with other members of her family in August, 1944, after her family had been living in hiding for two years. She was sent to Auschwitz and subsequently transferred to the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp, where she died in March 1945, during a typhus epidemic. Her tragic fate was just one of hundreds and hundreds of thousands which befell Europeans of many nations in the final, chaotic months of a war pursued with the repeatedly declared objective of imposing a Carthagenian peace on the doomed nations. Who, in the final analysis, was responsible for their deaths?


87. What sort of evidence has been found which indicates that not all, if any, of the famous diary attributed to her was written by her?

Prof. Robert Faurisson has undertaken extensive studies of this diary, parts of which were published in the Journal of Historical Review, Summer, 1982, pp147-209. He concludes, "the truth obliges me to say that the Diary of Anne Frank is only a simple literary fraud." Prof. Faurisson found that there are incongruities of details in the Diary and the structure of the house in which the family hid, 263 Prinsengracht in Amsterdam, during 1942-1944. On page 209 he reproduces two specimens of handwriting attributed to Anne Frank which were supposedly written only four months apart. One is the sort of handwriting which one would expect of a child, while the other (dated 12 June 1942) has the quite different appearance of an adult's writing. There are also numerous other details in the Diary which would not fit into the circumstances of a family supposedly living in hiding. There are also striking inconsistencies in the various translated versions. Prof. Arthur Butz (Hoax of the Twentieth Century, p37) also points out the improbability that the child wrote the introductory parts of the Diary, which contain a history of the Frank family and a review of the anti-Jewish measures taken since the beginning of the occupation of the Netherlands in 1940.


Judging the Accused


88. What methods were employed to extract confessions presented at a number of the war crimes trials of 1945 and later?

Torture, ranging from forcing the accused persons to eat feces to destroying their reproductive organs in a most painful manner. All sorts of psychological tricks and duress were also employed. Some years before his untimely and enigmatic death U.S. Senator Jseph R. McCarthy (1908-1957) gave the following statement to the press with regard to the war crimes trials: "I have heard evidence and read documentary proofs to the effect that the accused persons were beaten up, maltreated and physically tortured by methods which could only be conceived by sick brains. They were subjected to mock trials and pretended executions, they were told their families would be deprived of their ration cards. All these things were carried out with the approval of the Public Prosecutor in order to secure the psychological atmosphere necessary for the extortion of the required confessions. If the United States lets such acts committed by a few people go unpunished, then the whole world can rightly criticize us severely and forever doubt the correctness of our motives and our moral integrity."

References: Richard E. Harwood, Six Million Lost and Found, Historical Review Press, Chapel Ascote, Ladbroke, Southam, Warks, pp10-11, from which the quotation above is taken. Richard E. Harwood, Nuremherg and Other War Crimes Trials, Historical Review Press, 1978, pp48-49. A. Butz, The Hoax of the Twentieth Century, pp22-25, 189-193.


89. What does this use of torture tell us about the validity of the cases against the defendents and the character of their accusers in these trials?

The answer to this question should be obvious to a ten-year-old child.


90. Give examples of the kind of internal evidence that certain documents frequently used in support of the "Holocaust" claims are forgeries or otherwise invalid.

Many of such documents were obviously produced by torture or threats of torture. Many of the events and actions to which the accused men confessed were impossible. In some instances impossibly large numbers of persons were alleged to have been crowded into relatively small "gas chambers." Other documents speak of mass cremations in pits to which there would have been an insufficient supply of oxygen for combustion, while still others tell of men who smoked and ate while removing bodies from "gas chambers" immediately after gassings and thus would have subjected themselves to the lethal effects. The "Gerstein Report," on which many of the proponents of the Extermination Thesis have based their claims, contains a number of impossibilities and its authenticity is so doubtful that even the International Military Tribunal of Nuremberg (which did not bind itself to the usual rules of evidence) initially rejected it. The alleged confessions of Rudolf Höss (not to be confused with Hess), commandant of Auschwitz until November 1943, are especially notable for their impossible statements. One can readily speculate that the men who wrote such confessions deliberately wrote such impossibilities into them in order to warn people studying them after their executions that they were fraudulent.

References: Journal of Historical Review, Vol. II, pp103-136, 311 ff. There are also detailed discussions of the "confessions" by Höss and others in Stäglich's Der Auschwitz Mythos.


91. Give examples of evidence which shows that fraudulent photographic materials have been used in the attempt to substantiate the Extermination Thesis.

Modern techniques of forging and altering photographic evidence have advanced considerably. Nevertheless details of photographs often reveal signs of forgery to the schooled eye. Improper shadows and human proportions are examples of such details. Numerous fraudulent photographs and photographs of uncertain provenience have been used in attempts to substantiate the Extermination Thesis.

Reference: Journal of Historical Review, Vol. I, pp59-67.


92. What admonition did Senator Robert Taft of Ohio make about the legal basis of the Nuremberg trials of German leaders conducted during 1945-1946?

Senator Taft ("Mr. Republican") had the courage to point out that the American Constitution prohibits "ex post facto laws," that is, laws which would provide for punishment of acts which no law declared punishable at the time when the acts were committed. The American legal tradition is by no means an isolated one and is based on the Roman legal dictum, "Nulla poena sine lege." Shortly before the condemned men were hanged on 18 October 1946, Senator Taft predicted: "The hanging of the eleven men convicted will be a blot on the American record which we will long regret."

Reference: John F. Kennedy, Profiles in Courage, New York, Harper, 1956, pp216-224.


93. What violation of International Law was involved in the trial of Adolf Eichmann?

Adolf Eichmann (1906-1962) was involved in the management of transportation of Jews to concentration camps. Israeli agents violated Argentine sovereignty by abducting Eichmann on 12 May 1960. Israel did not even exist as a state at the time of Eichmann's alleged crimes. The capture, trial and execution of Eichmann is something for which Argentine authorities never forgave Israel. They saw them as a humiliating infringement of their sovereignty.

References: American Israelite, 4 November 1982. A. Butz, Hoax of the Twentieth Century, pp183 ff. Myth of the Six Million, pp35-37.


94. How did The Washington Post display its contempt for the intelligence of its readers?

In its issue of 3 May 1981, The Washington Post published an article by a certain Walter Reich which claims that two crematories in Auschwitz shown in an accompanying picture "could cremate about 2,000 bodies in 24 hours." Thus it was claimed that each crematory could cremate a body in 1-1/2 minutes or so, although the most modern crematories take about 50 times that long.

Reference: Journal of Historical Review, Fall, 1981, pp219-224, where there is a discussion of the technical aspects of cremation by Prof. Reinhard K. Buchner.


95. What inherent disadvantages do naturalized U.S. citizens have in deportation proceedings when they are accused of war crimes?

Witnesses against the accused persons in trials conducted in the United States have frequently been brought in from eastern Europe or Israel. When such witnesses return to their homelands they are no longer subject to the jurisdiction of the United States and thus can no longer be prosecuted for perjury. One outstanding case of prosecution of an innocent man is that of Frank Walus, who was accused in January 1977, of having committed atrocities in Poland. Eleven Jews testified that he had committed various crimes, but he was later exonerated after huge legal expenses and other agonies. In 1974 he had been denounced by Simon Wiesenthal.


96. What unusual and questionable legal measures were undertaken by the government of the German Federal Republic in connection with its continuing and future war crimes trials?

It is a generally recognized principle that there should not only be no "ex post facto laws" (e.g. U.S. Constitution, Article I, Section 9), but that time limitations should be placed on trials for given crimes lest witnesses' memories be clouded by time and lest evidence become invalid with the passage of time. The German penal code provided for a limit of twenty years in the case of murder trials. Thus, war crimes trials involving accusations of murder would have had to end by 1965 at the latest. However, in 1965 the German legislature (Bundestag) rationalized extending this limit by asserting that German sovereignty had been suspended before 1 January 1950, although in fact persons accused of murder during the war were subject to trials before 1950 both by Allied and German authorities. When the matter came up again in 1969 as a result of the twenty-year limitation, an even more drastic measure was taken simply by retroactively increasing the limitation from twenty to thirty years, thus creating a special sort of "ex post facto law". Such questionable legal measures were taken by the Federal Republic to discredit its predecessor government and to please public opinion throughout the world.

References: Historische Tatsachen Nr. 5, 1979, pp21 ff. Journal of Historical Review, Vol. II, no, 3, pp249-281.


97. What happened to the guards at the Dachau concentration camp (near Munich) when American forces captured it?

The guards were simply lined up against a wall and shot without trials. This incident demonstrates what sort of attitudes toward justice for individuals prevailed at the end of the war.

References: W. Stäglich, Der Auschwitz Mythos, p414. A. Butz, The Hoax of the Twentieth Century, p178 (picture).




98. What American term was applied to the camps in which Americans of Japanese ancestrv were interned?

The War Relocation Board was established in March 1942, and its camps were known as "relocation camps." The Germans missed an opportunity to learn a useful euphemism from the Americans in this instance. If they had made general use of a term like "Umsiedlungslager" instead of "Konzentrationslager" they would have avoided a term which had taken on a bad status even as early as the Boer War.


99. What important similarities and differences existed between the interning of Jews in Europe and the interning of Americans of Japanese ancestry?

There were a number of important parallels as well as important differences. Both groups were interned during war time as a result of a fear of acts against the war efforts of the respective powers, such as espionage, sabotage and partisan activity. Both groups suffered losses of liberty and property. In both instances at least some of the internees were guarded heavily in camps with barbed wire fences, guard towers, etc, and living conditions were difficult. However, the Germans were far slower about undertaking a massive, protracted internment of Jews. Within several months after the Japanese attack on PearlHarbor Americans of Japanese ancestry were rounded up and sent to camps far from their homes, while massive internment of Jews did not commence until well over two years after the beginning of the war. The massive internment of Hungarian Jews, in fact, did not take place until 1944, when the Red Army was pounding at the very gates of central Europe. The number of persons of Japanese ancestry who were interned amounted to only about 120,000, a far smaller number on both a relative and absolute basis. Another important difference lies in the fact that the Americans of Japanese ancestry committed no acts of espionage and sabotage, while Jews were heavily involved in partisan activity, especially behind the German lines in Russia, as we know from the boasts of the Jews themselves. Perhaps the most important difference of all lies in the fact that the Germans were up against the threat of a very brutal invasion and even genocide, the dimensions of which became especially apparent by the time of the Nemmersdorf (East Prussia) massacre in October 1944, if they had not been apparent enough even five years earlier during the massacres of Germans in the Polish Corridor. If Japanese forces had succeeded in invading the western coast of the United States, who knows what fate would have befallen persons of Japenese ancestry? After the war, Germans paid generous compensations to Jews, while compensations to Americans of Japanese ancestry for their losses are just now being suggested.

Reference: Journal of Historical Review, Vol. II, no. 1, pp45-58.


100. What was the fate of the populations of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania during and after World War II?

Large-scale deportations of the populations of the Baltic states to Siberia took place during the Soviet occupation of 1940-1941, especially of the intelligentsia of these countries. A similar Soviet measure to deprive a conquered country of its leadership class is to be seen in the massacre of the captured Polish officers in 1940. Further deportations took place after the Soviet reoccupation of the Baltic states.

References: Statistical details on the deportations are given in the 1970 edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica sub Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. For further background, see Donald Day, Onward Christian Soldiers , Torrance, 1982, (from a manuscript completed in 1942) and Historische Tatsachen Nr. 4, pp24 ff.


101. Why do we hear so little about the fate of these nations?

Although we are inundated on an almost daily basis with the wartime plight of the Jews of Europe, seldom is there any mention of the horrible things which happened to some of the Aryan nations of Europe. If their fates were better known through motion pictures and television serials, the suffering of the Jews would seem far less significant. For this reason the sufferings of the Aryan nations are a nearly taboo subject in these media. Who has ever seen a noble, suffering Latvian or East Prussian hero on American television?


102. What was the ethnic background of nearly all the Communist spies who stole the American secrets of atomic bomb production?

The atomic spies, two of whom were executed in 1953 for their crimes and nearly all of whom were Jewish, have no direct connection with the "Holocaust" question as such, but are mentioned here to exemplify the loyalty of many Jews to the Soviet Union before, during and after the Second World War. This circumstance was probably the chief reason for the massive interning of European Jews, which took place only some time after the beginning of hostilities between the USSR and Germany in June 1941.


103. What decision made by the Allies some 2-1/2 years before the end of the war caused the struggle to be especially bitter and destructive and created a situation which now threatens the very existence of the United States?

It is difficult to understand why Roosevelt announced the doctrine of unconditional surrender at the Casablanca Conference on 13 January 1943. It should have been obvious that such a policy would prolong the war, but the real motives for doing so are a mystery. In retrospect, this doctrine would seem to have been one of the most important diplomatic events of the war. It meant simultaneously that Germans who disliked Hitler and wanted to end his reign were put in a very weak position and that Hitler himself had no hopes in approaching the Allies for a peace settlement, as he had done a number of times previously. Were Roosevelt's pathological hatred of Germany and love of the power which war afforded him so intense that he remained blind to the results that such a policy was bound to have? Were the British convinced that such a policy, no matter what its cost, was necessary to end German commercial rivalry for once and all? Such a policy could also hardly avoid the extension of Communist influence deep into western Europe. Was Roosevelt's personality so perverse that he actually wanted this? Even if Roosevelt had little concern for the fates of hundreds of millions of Europeans and his own fighting men, it is astonishing that Henry Morgenthau and Roosevelt's other Jewish advisors advocated the policy, since it was bound to put the Jews of Europe likewise in a very difficult position in the resultant misery and chaos of the final phases of the war.

Reference: Anonymous, The Myth of the Six Million, Los Angeles, The Noontide Press, 1973 (second edition), pp38-45.


104. What was Franklin D. Roosevelt's reaction to the correct information about the Katyn massacre presented to him shortly before his death?

Roosevelt stubbornly refused to believe Soviet guilt in spite of reports available to him which demonstrated it. Furthermore, Roosevelt took active measures to suppress reports unfavorable to the USSR. George H. Earle, a former U.S. Minister to Bulgaria and Austria, saw Roosevelt personally about the matter, but Roosevelt admonished him not to publish anything detrimental. Earle was then transfered to Samoa. Although this incident is not directly related to the "Holocaust" question, it demonstrates how resolutely hostile Roosevelt was to anyone who made the suggestion that his Communist allies were anything but of a high moral order. It was on this basis that the war was conducted by the most powerful of the Allies. It also demonstrates the mood which was receptive to the wildest of atrocity stories about Germans at the end of the war.

Reference: L. FitzGibbon, Katyn, pp183-184.


105. Compare the mortality of German civilians resultant from the expulsions from Silesia, East Prussia, Bohemia, etc. and from the accompanying atrocities with the mortality of European Jews during World War II.

West German authorities have estimated that a total of 2,111,000 Germans died or were missing during the flight and expulsions from these areas. Even if we were to assume a Jewish mortality of one million, these German deaths, largely after the war, would be over twice as numerous.

References: Alfred de Zayas, Nemesis at Potsdam, London, 1977, pXXV. Historische Tatsache Nr. 4, where pictures of the massacre at Nemmersdorf (East Prussia) in October 1944, are given.


Exploitation and Results of the Extermination Thesis


106. What has caused Zionist propagandists to adhere stubbornly to the six-million figure in the face of clear demographic evidence, much of it from Jewish sources, that there had never been more than about 3-1/2 million Jews under Hitler's control at any time?

Other nations suffered great losses during and after the Second World War at the hands of the Communists, such as the Baltic nations, the Ukrainians and the Germans living east of the Oderneisse Line. The bombardment of European cities caused huge losses of life and the turning over of large numbers of anti-Communists to death and torture by the Communists was one of the blackest chapters in American and British history. The gross exaggeration of Jewish mortality has been propagated to bring about an obliteration by contrast of awareness of the losses of other peoples. Zionists who control to a considerable extent motion picture production, television networks and the press have arrogantly assumed that their influence on American opinion is so great and decisive that nearly anything can be put forth on the American public without an effective questioning of it.

Reference: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1945 edition, Vol. 13, p63B. Here a Jewish source states that "about 4,000,000 Jews were continuously suffering under reactionary European governments" during the 1931-1941 period.


107. What Biblical passage could be taken as a prophecy for the present propagandistic use of the Extermination Thesis?

There would seem to be some strong parallels in Isaiah 19:2, "And I will set the Egyptians against the Egyptians: and they shall fight every one against his brother, and every one against his neighbor; city against city, and kingdom against kingdom."


108. What factors have inhibited many Christian clergymen from questioning the validity of the Holocaust" claims?

To be consistent, fundamentalist ministers are confronted with the necessity of accepting a number of passages in the Hebrew part of the Bible (the Old Testament) which state that a particularly important role has been assigned to the Jews by God and that the enemies of the Jews are disdained by God. On a somewhat less philosophical plane, ministers who arrange trips for their parishioners to the Holy Land would be confronted with difficulties with the Zionist state presently occupying much of the Holy Land if they were to incur the hostility of that state.


109. What objects used by everyone on an almost daily basis have the Communist satrapies, such as Poland and the German Democratic Republic, employed for the continued propaganda campaign against a government which passed out of existence nearly four decades ago?

Postage stamps. Poland and the German Democratic Republic in particular have issued a great many postage stamps relating to sites where "victims of Fascism" were interned during World War II. Some of the stamps were sold with surtaxes for the construction of monuments, such as those issued on Ravensbrück and Sachsenhausen by the German Democratic Republic in 1957 and 1961. One notable feature of the stamps is the fact that few of them allude specifically to the internment of Jews. A Polish stamp of 1956 shows the Warsaw Ghetto Monument and a Czech issue of 1967 features a menorah.

Reference: Journal of Historical Review, Vol. III, no. 2. pp115-116, where eight of such stamps are reproduced.


110. How widely known and accepted is the six-million figure claimed for European Jewish mortality during World War II?

Hardly any American who listens to television or reads popular news periodicals could escape having heard or seen this figure many times. Very few Americans, however, have made the effort to undertake a critical evaluation of this figure on the basis of pre-war reference works and the like. By way of contrast, most Americans would have difficulty in giving even an approximation of the number of Americans killed in action during World War II.


111. What very large ethnic group in the United States has suffered especially from the "Holocaust" material and how?

Americans of German descent have had their ethnic pride undermined to a serious extent by the Extermination Thesis and its constant reiteration on television, in books and in periodicals. These people make up an important component of the United States population, especially in the "German Belt," which extends westward from Pennsylvania into Missouri and Kansas. As a rule they are thrifty and seldom take welfare derived from other taxpayers. However, the Extermination Thesis has been used to undermine the ethnic awareness and solidarity of Aryan Americans in general. Other Americans adversely affected by the "Holocaust" material are those, for example, of Baltic, Polish and Ukrainian descent.


112. What psychological damage to Jews themselves could be caused by a preoccupation with the "Holocaust" material?

The constant reiteration of the Extermination Thesis could undermine the trust which Jews place in their host populations and thus make relations with them difficult. The Extermination Thesis has undoubtedly influenced United States policies toward Israel and immigration policies, but a reaction against these policies could take on extreme forms.


113. Who originated the term genocide?

The term occurs in a number of contexts in the book Axis Rule in Occupied Europe: Laws of Occupation, Analysis of Government, Proposals for Redress. The book, which appeared in 1944, was written by Raphael Lemkin, a refugee Polish Jew.

Reference: Journal of Historical Review, Vol. II, no. 1, pp19-34.


114. What grave dangers could be created by an American signing of the genocide convention now being advocated especially in Zionist circles?

A treaty against the murdering of persons on the basis of their racial origins would seem at first thought to be a decent enough thing, but the provisions of the proposed treaty view "genocide" in such a broad manner that even verbal abuse would be considered a "genocidal" act. In addition to the international ramifications of such a treaty, internal implementing legislation could destroy the psychological defenses of majority groups and outlaw rational discussion of racial problems.


115. What has been the record of the German Democratic Republic with regard to "reparations" payments to the Jewish state in Palestine?

Unlike the German Federal Republic, which signed the Luxembourg Agreement of 1952, the German Democratic Republic, the Communist state in central Germany, has not signed a corresponding agreement, by which it would have to send a great deal of precious foreign exchange to Israel and other countries.


116. What was the ethnic composition of the Communist satellite governments imposed on eastern European countries after World War II?

Following the Communist armies occupying eastern European countries toward the end of the war there came many Jewish officials to impose their alien, cruel regimes on the conquered nations. Amongst the most prominent were: Hilda Benjamin, Minister of justice of the German Democratic Republic, 1953-1967; Gerhard Eisler, who held various important posts in the media of the German Democratic Republic; Ana Pauker, Foreign Minister of Romania, 1947-1952; Matyas Rakosi, Secretary-General of the Communist Party of Hungary, later deputy minister-president and premier of Hungary; Rudolf Slansky, Secretary-General of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, 1945-1951. He was executed for Ideological deviation. These are only some of the most prominent of the hordes of Jews who were able to obtain government positions after the murder, expulsion and disfranchisement of Aryan officials of previous governments. Many of the members of the secret police apparatus were Jews. Marschalko states that (as of 1956) the Hungarian State Security Department "was solely controlled by Jews,"

Reference: Louis Marschalko, The World Conquerors, pp285 ff.


117. How have Palestinians suffered from the dissemination of the "Holocaust" material?

The "Holocaust" material helped to pave the road to a large Jewish migration to Palestine, especially during 1945-1948, by minimizing the number of Jewish "survivors'' and arousing sympathy for them. The material was also valuable in facilitating Jewish emigration from Europe to other parts of the world. During the past four decades grave atrocities have been committed by Jews against their Palestinian neighbors and here again the propaganda technique of "obliteration by contrast" comes in handy, even in the case of the Jewish occupation of Lebanon and what has happened during it.


118. What shrewd slurs were cast against Germans in the television film series "Holocaust"?

This film series is a shrewd propaganda effort which has an appeal to simpleminded people by portraying Germans and Jews in starkly contrasting, simplistic delineations. The Jewish protagonists are portrayed as highly intelligent, serene, idealistic types, while the Germans are portrayed in most cases as having the minds and moral levels of swine. One of the chief antagonists, Dorf, is portrayed as a coward who commits suicide at the end. There are some notable similarities of this series to the l8-hour series, The Winds of War (1983.)


119. Was this film series a truly documentary series?

The film does not actually claim to be history. It is, by its own admission, fiction. However, all too many people have taken it as being an accurate representation of history.


Some Important Books on the Controversy


120. What are some of the most important books from which an objective, independently thinking person can obtain facts and ideas pertaining to the "Holocaust" controversy which has been raging during the past decade or so?

A considerable number of books and articles advocating revisionistic views on the Extermination Thesis are extant, but are by no means as readily available as those which present the Extermination Thesis as unquestionable history. The following very brief bibliography must be considered only a sample, but a number of the books contain, in turn, detailed bibliographies for further reference.

Anonymous. "The Myth of the Six Million". Los Angeles: The Noon tide Press, 1973, Second edition, 4 + 119pp. The first edition of this work appeared in 1969 and was one of the earliest works in English which contested the Exterminstion Thesis. Valuable for a background on the position of Jews in Germany during the earlier years of the National Socialist period. Reviewed in Best of Instauration 1976, p51, along with other early revisionistic efforts, such as those of Paul Rassinier and Austin J. App.

App, Austin J. "The Six Million Swindle". Takoma Park, Maryland: Boniface Press, 1973, 29pp. Prof. App taught at LaSalle College, Philadelphia. This book is somewhat journalistic, but contains interesting facts on the question. Stresses the objectives and results of the Extermination Thesis.

Beaty. John. "The Iron Curtain Over America". Los Angeles: The Noontide Press, 1951, xiii + 268pp. Discusses World War II and Jewish influences in Russia and the United States from the point of view of an officer who held important intelligence positions during the war. Challenges the Extermination Thesis on the basis of demographic data.

Britton, Frank. "Behind Communism", Los Angeles, no date. (ca. 1955?) A work which is pertinent to the examination of the Extermination Thesis because it documents the Jewish control of the Soviet state and thus helps to explain European attitudes toward the Jewish question after 1917. A good source of information on the real origins of the Communist evil which threatens us Americans with the extinction of our very existence as a nation.

Butz, Arthur R. "The Hoax of the Twentieth Century". Richmond, Surrey: Historical Review Press, 1976, 313pp, maps and some illustrations. This highly detailed work is a milestone in the refutation of the Extermination Thesis. One measure of its merit lies in the fact that there has never been a paragraph-by-paragraph attempt to refute it. Its author is a professor at Northwestern University in Illinois. A fifth edition was published in 1980. Professor Butz has expanded and updated his book by articles published in the Journal of Historical Review, Volume I, pp5-22 and pp322-334 and Volume III, pp341-351 and pp371-405.

Christophersen, Thies. "Auschwitz / A Personal Account". 1979 edition, Printed in U.S.A., viii + 31pp, illustrated. Original German edition published in 1973. The author was stationed in Auschwitz for the purpose of agricultural research during the year 1944. The author bears personal witness against the Extermination Thesis as far as Auschwitz is concerned.

Codreanu, Corneliu. "For My Legionairies". Madrid: Editura "Lib ertatea," 1976, Printed in the United States. Translated from the Romanian. Originally published under the title, Pentru Legionari in 1936. A rather rambling, personal account of the struggles of Romanian nationalists during the 1920s and the 1930s against Communism and other influences perceived as Jewish.

Day, Donald. "Onward Christian Soldiers". Torrance: The Noontide Press, 1982. From a manuscript completed in 1942. x + 207pp. Day was a correspondent for the Chicago Tribune during 1920-1942. He gives a valuable picture of eastern Europe (Baltic states, Poland, Danzig, Scandanavia) during that time. Although Day was not permitted to go into the USSR, he gives in sights into its effects on eastern Europe. A chapter on the Jews (pp101-113) is especially pertinent to the study of their position in eastern Europe at the time.

Diwald, Hellmut. "Geschichte der Deutschen". Frankfurt am Main, Berlin, Vienna: Propylaen Verlag, 1978, 766 pages with 837 illustrations. The author is a professor of history at the University of Erlangen. The first printing of this book caused a sensation as a result of its pages 163-165, which cast doubts on the usual versions of the Extermination Thesis. In later printings these pages appeared in altered form. Reviewed in Volume I, no. 1 of the Journal of Historical Review, pp81-87.

FitzGibbon, Louis. "Katyn". Torrance: The Noontide Press, 1979. An illustrated book on the massacre in 1940 of Polish officers captured by the USSR in 1939. It is related to the Extermination Thesis by showing the nature of the struggle against Communism and the naive or dishonest reaction of the western Allies, especially the United States, to the evidence presented to the world by the Germans in 1943, when they discovered the mass graves.

"Forschungen zur Judenfrage". Hamburg: Hanseatische Verlagsanstalt, 1937-1943. Six volumes. Contains nearly fifty articles on the history of Jews and Judaism; many written by outstanding scholars and scientists on a wide range of topics. Copies of this series are scarce and in demand in Germany. They are so rare in the United States that it would probably be difficult to locate more than a half dozen sets there. Of unusual value in the study of the Jewish question, since the series was not written by Jews themselves. The production of this series was under the auspices of the Reichsinstitut für Geschichte des neuen Deutschlands. It certainly must have cost the German government hundreds of thousands of Reichmark to produce.

"The Great Holocaust Debate". Reprint from the Spotlight of 24 September 1979, 16 pages, 29x38-1/2 cm. Contains articles by Robert Faurisson, Mark Weber and others.

Harwood, Richard. "Six Million Lost and Found". Chapel Ascote, Ladbroke, Nr. Southam, Warwickshire: Historical Review press, 1979, 28pp, 22x28 cm. Earlier edition published under the title, Did Six Million Really Die?, 1974. Discusses various aspects of the Extermination Thesis. Especially detailed in its analysis of demographic data and the use of torture in postwar war crimes trials.

Harwood, Richard. "Nuremberg and Other War Crimes Trials". Historical Review Press, 1978, 70pp, 22x28 cm. Contains a long section on the individual cases of the chief defendents at Nuremberg. A concluding section on pp59-68 is entitled, "Allied & Israeli War Crimes Left Unpunished," and discusses the Katyn massacre, the bombing of German cities, the "repatriation'' of anti-Communist Russians, Jewish atrocities in Palestine and the Israeli attack on the U.S.S. Liberty in 1967.

"Historische Tatsache". A series of booklets measuring about 22x28 cm., published by Verlag für Volkstum und Zeitgeschichtsforschung, Postfach 1643, 4973 Vlotho/Weser. Some of the issues pertaining to the Extermination Thesis are:

Nr. 3 Richard Harwood, "Der Nürnberger Prozess —Methoden und Bedeutung", 1977, 38pp. Contains critical analysis of the Nuremberg Trials and the text of Göring's letter to Churchill written shortly before Göring's suicide.

Nr. 4 Udo Walendy, "Der Verrat an Osteuropa", 1978, 40pp. Discusses especially the fates of the Baltic states and Poland.

Nr. 5 "NS-Bewältigung —Deutsche Schreibtisctäter" , 1979, 40pp. Contains articles by W. Stäglich and Udo Walendy on "reëducation," the Gerstein Report, the German statute of limitations and other topics.

Nr. 7 "Der moderne Index", 1980, 40pp. Discusses the efforts of the Bonn government to suppress revisionistic writing of history, especially on the basis of laws pertaining to the censorship of literature harmful to juveniles. Quotations from Diwald's Geschichte der Deutschen and from interviews with Prof. Diwald.

Nr. 8 "Zum Untergang des Dritten Reiches", 1981, 40pp. On the final collapse of German armed resistance in 1945.

Nr. 9 Udo Walendy, "Holocaust nun unterirdisch?", 1981, 40pp. Reproduces some of the recently published photographs of Auschwitz taken by the U.S. Air Force in 1944.

Nr. 10 Udo Walendy, "Deutsch-Israelitische Fakten", 1981, 40pp. Contains articles on boycott of German goods in 1933, the Kristallnacht, reparations payments to Israel.

Nr. 11 Udo Walendy, "Deutsches Schicksal / Westpreussen", 1981, 40pp. On the plight of the German population in the Polish Corridor and Danzig during the 1920s and 1930s.

"The Holocaust". Jerusalem: Yad Vashem, 1977, 80pp, illustrated, 21x27 cm. Adheres to the six-million figure and the other usual Zionist tenets of the Extermination Thesis. A number of the pictures appear to be questionable. This book is mentioned here to serve as an example of the Zionist version of history. However, it is also valuable because some of the statements and pictures in it serve to discredit the Extermination Thesis.

"IHB Special Report". Published in early 1983 by the Institute for Historical Review, 8pp, 29x36 cm. Contains reports of recent developments in the refutation of the Extermination Thesis and includes a rather extensive listing of books in the area in English, German, French, Spanish and Italian.

"Instauration". Published monthly since 1975 by Howard Allen Enterprises, Box 76, Cape Canaveral, Florida 32920. Frequently contains reports and articles on historical revisionism.

"Journal of Historical Review". Has been published four times a year beginning with the Spring 1980, issue by the Institute for Historical Review, P.O. Box 1306, Torrance, California 90505. Contains a wealth of material challenging the usual versions of the history of the twentieth century. Most of the articles deal with the Second World War.

Liebe, Georg. "Das Judentum in der deutschen Vergangenheit" , Jena: Eugen Diedrichs, 1924, Second edition. In the series, "Die deutschen Stände in Einzeldarstellungen". Although this book takes the history of the Jews in central Europe only up to the time of the completion of their legal emancipation in 1848, it provides significant background on the Jewish question. Nearly all of its over 100 illustrations are reproductions of pertinent contemporary woodcuts and cooper engravings from the 15th to 19th centuries. It is thus documentary in the best sense of the word.

Merschalko, Louis. "The World Conquerors / The Real War Criminals" . Christian Book Club, reprinted December 1968, copyright 1958. Translated from the Hungarian. 296pp. A highly interesting view of the Second World War and postwar sufferings of the conquered nations at the hands of the Communists by a man whose homeland suffered very severely and had the courage to revolt against its oppressors in 1958. Marschalko considers the "Holocaust" claims greatly exaggerated.

Rassinier, Paul. "Debunking the Genocide Myth". Los Angeles: The Noontide Press, 1978. Translations into English of Le Mensonge d'Ulysee and other works by the author, a teacher who himself was interned in Buchenwald. Rassinier was an early challenger of the Extermination Thesis. The original French versions of his works appeared for the most part in the 1960s. A measure of the importance of his works can be seen in the fact that he is still often cited, e.g., by W. Stäglich in his Der Auschwitz Mythos (1979).

Stäglich, Wilhelm. "Der Auschwitz Mythos". Tübingen: Grabert Verlag. 1979, XI + 457 pages + pictorial section of 24 pages. A seminal work, well organized and with well reasoned arguments. The author is a jurist and hence sophisticated in the examination of evidence and stating arguments in a lucid manner. The work has been banned by the Bonn government but an English translation of it is being prepared in the United States.

Stimely, Keith. "1981 Revisionist Bibliography", Torrance: The Institute for Historical Review, 1981, 6 + 70 pages. A valuable annotated bibliography listing revisionist books in English, mostly on the First and Second World Wars.

von Verschuer, Baron Otmar. "Leitfaden der Rassenhygiene", Leipzig: Georg Thieme Verlag, 1944, Second, amended edition. A handbook on eugenics and genetically determined diseases from a medical point of view. It has a section on the Jewish question. The book contains ideas on eugenics which were, in part, imported from the United States. The book gives its reader a concept of the largely biological basis with which the National Socialist authorities approached the Jewish question.

Weber. Charles E. "Memorandum for a Truth Squad". [1982]. A one-leaf print suggesting questions to be asked speakers at "Holocaust" seminars and the like. There have been several printings .

de Zayas, Alfred. "Nemesis at Potsdam / The Anglo-Americans and the Expulsion of the Germans / Background, Execution, Consequences". London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1977. A valuable book which has not received the attention it deserves in connection with the Extermination Thesis. It is well illustrated and provides good background on the conditions in Germany at the end of the war and thereafter. It also helps to put the "Holocaust" claims in their proper perspective.

Zionism and the Third Reich

By Mark Weber 


Early in 1935, a passenger ship bound for Haifa in Palestine left the German port of Bremerhaven. Its stern bore the Hebrew letters for its name, "Tel Aviv," while a swastika banner fluttered from the mast. And although the ship was Zionist-owned, its captain was a National Socialist Party member. Many years later a traveler aboard the ship recalled this symbolic combination as a "metaphysical absurdity."1 Absurd or not, this is but one vignette from a little-known chapter of history: The wide-ranging collaboration between Zionism and Hitler's Third Reich.


Common Aims

Over the years, people in many different countries have wrestled with the "Jewish question": that is, what is the proper role of Jews in non-Jewish society? During the 1930s, Jewish Zionists and German National Socialists shared similar views on how to deal with this perplexing issue. They agreed that Jews and Germans were distinctly different nationalities, and that Jews did not belong in Germany. Jews living in the Reich were therefore to be regarded not as "Germans of the Jewish faith," but rather as members of a separate national community. Zionism (Jewish nationalism) also implied an obligation by Zionist Jews to resettle in Palestine, the "Jewish homeland." They could hardly regard themselves as sincere Zionists and simultaneously claim equal rights in Germany or any other "foreign" country.

Theodor Herzl (1860-1904), the founder of modern Zionism, maintained that anti-Semitism is not an aberration, but a natural and completely understandable response by non-Jews to alien Jewish behavior and attitudes. The only solution, he argued, is for Jews to recognize reality and live in a separate state of their own. "The Jewish question exists wherever Jews live in noticeable numbers," he wrote in his most influential work, The Jewish State. "Where it does not exist, it is brought in by arriving Jews. . . . I believe I understand anti-Semitism, which is a very complex phenomenon. I consider this development as a Jew, without hate or fear." The Jewish question, he maintained, is not social or religious. "It is a national question. To solve it we must, above all, make it an international political issue. . . ." Regardless of their citizenship, Herzl insisted, Jews constitute not merely a religious community, but a nationality, a people, a Volk.2 Zionism, wrote Herzl, offered the world a welcome "final solution of the Jewish question."3

Six months after Hitler came to power, the Zionist Federation of Germany (by far the largest Zionist group in the country) submitted a detailed memorandum to the new government that reviewed German-Jewish relations and formally offered Zionist support in "solving" the vexing "Jewish question." The first step, it suggested, had to be a frank recognition of fundamental national differences: 4

Zionism has no illusions about the difficulty of the Jewish condition, which consists above all in an abnormal occupational pattern and in the fault of an intellectual and moral posture not rooted in one's own tradition. Zionism recognized decades ago that as a result of the assimilationist trend, symptoms of deterioration were bound to appear . . .

Zionism believes that the rebirth of the national life of a people, which is now occurring in Germany through the emphasis on its Christian and national character, must also come about in the Jewish national group. For the Jewish people, too, national origin, religion, common destiny and a sense of its uniqueness must be of decisive importance in the shaping of its existence. This means that the egotistical individualism of the liberal era must be overcome and replaced with a sense of community and collective responsibility . . .

We believe it is precisely the new [National Socialist] Germany that can, through bold resoluteness in the handling of the Jewish question, take a decisive step toward overcoming a problem which, in truth, will have to be dealt with by most European peoples . . .

Our acknowledgment of Jewish nationality provides for a clear and sincere relationship to the German people and its national and racial realities. Precisely because we do not wish to falsify these fundamentals, because we, too, are against mixed marriage and are for maintaining the purity of the Jewish group and reject any trespasses in the cultural domain, we - having been brought up in the German language and German culture - can show an interest in the works and values of German culture with admiration and internal sympathy . . .

For its practical aims, Zionism hopes to be able to win the collaboration of even a government fundamentally hostile to Jews, because in dealing with the Jewish question not sentimentalities are involved but a real problem whose solution interests all peoples and at the present moment especially the German people . . .

Boycott propaganda - such as is currently being carried on against Germany in many ways - is in essence un-Zionist, because Zionism wants not to do battle but to convince and to build . . .

We are not blind to the fact that a Jewish question exists and will continue to exist. From the abnormal situation of the Jews severe disadvantages result for them, but also scarcely tolerable conditions for other peoples.

The Federation's paper, the Jüdische Rundschau ("Jewish Review"), proclaimed the same message: "Zionism recognizes the existence of a Jewish problem and desires a far-reaching and constructive solution. For this purpose Zionism wishes to obtain the assistance of all peoples, whether pro- or anti-Jewish, because, in its view, we are dealing here with a concrete rather than a sentimental problem, the solution of which all peoples are interested."5 A young Berlin rabbi, Joachim Prinz, who later settled in the United States and became head of the American Jewish Congress, wrote in his 1934 book, Wir Juden ("We Jews"), that the National Socialist revolution in Germany meant "Jewry for the Jews." He explained: "No subterfuge can save us now. In place of assimilation we desire a new concept: recognition of the Jewish nation and Jewish race." 6


Active Collaboration

On this basis of their similar ideologies about ethnicity and nationhood, National Socialists and Zionists worked together for what each group believed was in its own national interest. As a result, the Hitler government vigorously supported Zionism and Jewish emigration to Palestine from 1933 until 1940-1941, when the Second World War prevented extensive collaboration.

Even as the Third Reich became more entrenched, many German Jews, probably a majority, continued to regard themselves, often with considerable pride, as Germans first. Few were enthusiastic about pulling up roots to begin a new life in far-away Palestine. Nevertheless, more and more German Jews turned to Zionism during this period. Until late 1938, the Zionist movement flourished in Germany under Hitler. The circulation of the Zionist Federation's bi-weekly J_dische Rundschau grew enormously. Numerous Zionist books were published. "Zionist work was in full swing" in Germany during those years, the Encyclopaedia Judaica notes. A Zionist convention held in Berlin in 1936 reflected "in its composition the vigorous party life of German Zionists."7

The SS was particularly enthusiastic in its support for Zionism. An internal June 1934 SS position paper urged active and wide-ranging support for Zionism by the government and the Party as the best way to encourage emigration of Germany's Jews to Palestine. This would require increased Jewish self-awareness. Jewish schools, Jewish sports leagues, Jewish cultural organizations - in short, everything that would encourage this new consciousness and self-awareness - should be promoted, the paper recommended.8

SS officer Leopold von Mildenstein and Zionist Federation official Kurt Tuchler toured Palestine together for six months to assess Zionist development there. Based on his firsthand observations, von Mildenstein wrote a series of twelve illustrated articles for the important Berlin daily Der Angriff that appeared in late 1934 under the heading "A Nazi Travels to Palestine." The series expressed great admiration for the pioneering spirit and achievements of the Jewish settlers. Zionist self-development, von Mildenstein wrote, had produced a new kind of Jew. He praised Zionism as a great benefit for both the Jewish people and the entire world. A Jewish homeland in Palestine, he wrote in his concluding article, "pointed the way to curing a centuries-long wound on the body of the world: the Jewish question." Der Angriff issued a special medal, with a Swastika on one side and a Star of David on the other, to commemorate the joint SS-Zionist visit. A few months after the articles appeared, von Mildenstein was promoted to head the Jewish affairs department of the SS security service in order to support Zionist migration and development more effectively. 9

The official SS newspaper, Das Schwarze Korps, proclaimed its support for Zionism in a May 1935 front-page editorial: "The time may not be too far off when Palestine will again be able to receive its sons who have been lost to it for more than a thousand years. Our good wishes, together with official goodwill, go with them."10 Four months later, a similar article appeared in the SS paper: 11

The recognition of Jewry as a racial community based on blood and not on religion leads the German government to guarantee without reservation the racial separateness of this community. The government finds itself in complete agreement with the great spiritual movement within Jewry, the so-called Zionism, with its recognition of the solidarity of Jewry around the world and its rejection of all assimilationist notions. On this basis, Germany undertakes measures that will surely play a significant role in the future in the handling of the Jewish problem around the world.

A leading German shipping line began direct passenger liner service from Hamburg to Haifa, Palestine, in October 1933 providing "strictly kosher food on its ships, under the supervision of the Hamburg rabbinate." 12

With official backing, Zionists worked tirelessly to "reeducate" Germany's Jews. As American historian Francis Nicosia put it in his 1985 survey, The Third Reich and the Palestine Question: "Zionists were encouraged to take their message to the Jewish community, to collect money, to show films on Palestine and generally to educate German Jews about Palestine. There was considerable pressure to teach Jews in Germany to cease identifying themselves as Germans and to awaken a new Jewish national identity in them." 13

In an interview after the war, the former head of the Zionist Federation of Germany, Dr. Hans Friedenthal, summed up the situation: "The Gestapo did everything in those days to promote emigration, particularly to Palestine. We often received their help when we required anything from other authorities regarding preparations for emigration." 14

At the September 1935 National Socialist Party Congress, the Reichstag adopted the so-called "Nuremberg laws" that prohibited marriages and sexual relations between Jews and Germans and, in effect, proclaimed the Jews an alien minority nationality. A few days later the Zionist J_dische Rundschau editorially welcomed the new measures: 15

Germany . . . is meeting the demands of the World Zionist Congress when it declares the Jews now living in Germany to be a national minority. Once the Jews have been stamped a national minority it is again possible to establish normal relations between the German nation and Jewry. The new laws give the Jewish minority in Germany its own cultural life, its own national life. In future it will be able to shape its own schools, its own theatre, and its own sports associations. In short, it can create its own future in all aspects of national life . . .

Germany has given the Jewish minority the opportunity to live for itself, and is offering state protection for this separate life of the Jewish minority: Jewry's process of growth into a nation will thereby be encouraged and a contribution will be made to the establishment of more tolerable relations between the two nations.

Georg Kareski, the head of both the "Revisionist" Zionist State Organization and the Jewish Cultural League, and former head of the Berlin Jewish Community, declared in an interview with the Berlin daily Der Angriff at the end of 1935: 16

For many years I have regarded a complete separation of the cultural affairs of the two peoples [Jews and Germans] as a pre-condition for living together without conflict. . . . I have long supported such a separation, provided it is founded on respect for the alien nationality. The Nuremberg Laws . . . seem to me, apart from their legal provisions, to conform entirely with this desire for a separate life based on mutual respect. . . . This interruption of the process of dissolution in many Jewish communities, which had been promoted through mixed marriages, is therefore, from a Jewish point of view, entirely welcome.

Zionist leaders in other countries echoed these views. Stephen S. Wise, president of the American Jewish Congress and the World Jewish Congress, told a New York rally in June 1938: "I am not an American citizen of the Jewish faith, I am a Jew. . . . Hitler was right in one thing. He calls the Jewish people a race and we are a race." 17

The Interior Ministry's Jewish affairs specialist, Dr. Bernhard L_sener, expressed support for Zionism in an article that appeared in a November 1935 issue of the official Reichsverwaltungsblatt: 18

If the Jews already had their own state in which the majority of them were settled, then the Jewish question could be regarded as completely resolved today, also for the Jews themselves. The least amount of opposition to the ideas underlying the Nuremberg Laws have been shown by the Zionists, because they realize at once that these laws represent the only correct solution for the Jewish people as well. For each nation must have its own state as the outward expression of its particular nationhood.

In cooperation with the German authorities, Zionist groups organized a network of some forty camps and agricultural centers throughout Germany where prospective settlers were trained for their new lives in Palestine. Although the Nuremberg Laws forbid Jews from displaying the German flag, Jews were specifically guaranteed the right to display the blue and white Jewish national banner. The flag that would one day be adopted by Israel was flown at the Zionist camps and centers in Hitler's Germany. 19

Himmler's security service cooperated with the Haganah, the Zionist underground military organization in Palestine. The SS agency paid Haganah official Feivel Polkes for information about the situation in Palestine and for help in directing Jewish emigration to that country. Meanwhile, the Haganah was kept well informed about German plans by a spy it managed to plant in the Berlin headquarters of the SS.20 Haganah-SS collaboration even included secret deliveries of German weapons to Jewish settlers for use in clashes with Palestinian Arabs. 21

In the aftermath of the November 1938 "Kristallnacht" outburst of violence and destruction, the SS quickly helped the Zionist organization to get back on its feet and continue its work in Germany, although now under more restricted supervision. 22


Official Reservations

German support for Zionism was not unlimited. Government and Party officials were very mindful of the continuing campaign by powerful Jewish communities in the United States, Britain and other countries to mobilize "their" governments and fellow citizens against Germany. As long as world Jewry remained implacably hostile towards National Socialist Germany, and as long as the great majority of Jews around the world showed little eagerness to resettle in the Zionist "promised land," a sovereign Jewish state in Palestine would not really "solve" the international Jewish question. Instead, German officials reasoned, it would immeasurably strengthen this dangerous anti-German campaign. German backing for Zionism was therefore limited to support for a Jewish homeland in Palestine under British control, not a sovereign Jewish state. 23

A Jewish state in Palestine, the Foreign Minister informed diplomats in June 1937, would not be in Germany's interest because it would not be able to absorb all Jews around the world, but would only serve as an additional power base for international Jewry, in much the same way as Moscow served as a base for international Communism.24 Reflecting something of a shift in official policy, the German press expressed much greater sympathy in 1937 for Palestinian Arab resistance to Zionist ambitions, at a time when tension and conflict between Jews and Arabs in Palestine was sharply increasing. 25

A Foreign Office circular bulletin of June 22, 1937, cautioned that in spite of support for Jewish settlement in Palestine, "it would nevertheless be a mistake to assume that Germany supports the formation of a state structure in Palestine under some form of Jewish control. In view of the anti-German agitation of international Jewry, Germany cannot agree that the formation of a Palestine Jewish state would help the peaceful development of the nations of the world."26 "The proclamation of a Jewish state or a Jewish-administrated Palestine," warned an internal memorandum by the Jewish affairs section of the SS, "would create for Germany a new enemy, one that would have a deep influence on developments in the Near East." Another SS agency predicted that a Jewish state "would work to bring special minority protection to Jews in every country, therefore giving legal protection to the exploitation activity of world Jewry."27 In January 1939, Hitler's new Foreign Minister, Joachim von Ribbentrop, likewise warned in another circular bulletin that "Germany must regard the formation of a Jewish state as dangerous" because it "would bring an international increase in power to world Jewry." 28

Hitler himself personally reviewed this entire issue in early 1938 and, in spite of his long-standing skepticism of Zionist ambitions and misgivings that his policies might contribute to the formation of a Jewish state, decided to support Jewish migration to Palestine even more vigorously. The prospect of ridding Germany of its Jews, he concluded, outweighed the possible dangers. 29

Meanwhile, the British government imposed ever more drastic restrictions on Jewish immigration into Palestine in 1937, 1938 and 1939. In response, the SS security service concluded a secret alliance with the clandestine Zionist agency Mossad le-Aliya Bet to smuggle Jews illegally into Palestine. As a result of this intensive collaboration, several convoys of ships succeeded in reaching Palestine past British gunboats. Jewish migration, both legal and illegal, from Germany (including Austria) to Palestine increased dramatically in 1938 and 1939. Another 10,000 Jews were scheduled to depart in October 1939, but the outbreak of war in September brought the effort to an end. All the same, German authorities continued to promote indirect Jewish emigration to Palestine during 1940 and 1941. 30 Even as late as March 1942, at least one officially authorized Zionist "kibbutz" training camp for potential emigrants continued to operate in Hitler's Germany. 31


The Transfer Agreement

The centerpiece of German-Zionist cooperation during the Hitler era was the Transfer Agreement, a pact that enabled tens of thousands of German Jews to migrate to Palestine with their wealth. The Agreement, also known as the Ha'avara (Hebrew for "transfer"), was concluded in August 1933 following talks between German officials and Chaim Arlosoroff, Political Secretary of the Jewish Agency, the Palestine center of the World Zionist Organization. 32

Through this unusual arrangement, each Jew bound for Palestine deposited money in a special account in Germany. The money was used to purchase German-made agricultural tools, building materials, pumps, fertilizer, and so forth, which were exported to Palestine and sold there by the Jewish-owned Ha'avara company in Tel-Aviv. Money from the sales was given to the Jewish emigrant upon his arrival in Palestine in an amount corresponding to his deposit in Germany. German goods poured into Palestine through the Ha'avara, which was supplemented a short time later with a barter agreement by which Palestine oranges were exchanged for German timber, automobiles, agricultural machinery, and other goods. The Agreement thus served the Zionist aim of bringing Jewish settlers and development capital to Palestine, while simultaneously serving the German goal of freeing the country of an unwanted alien group.

Delegates at the 1933 Zionist Congress in Prague vigorously debated the merits of the Agreement. Some feared that the pact would undermine the international Jewish economic boycott against Germany. But Zionist officials reassured the Congress. Sam Cohen, a key figure behind the Ha'avara arrangement, stressed that the Agreement was not economically advantageous to Germany. Arthur Ruppin, a Zionist Organization emigration specialist who had helped negotiate the pact, pointed out that "the Transfer Agreement in no way interfered with the boycott movement, since no new currency will flow into Germany as a result of the agreement. . . ." 33 The 1935 Zionist Congress, meeting in Switzerland, overwhelmingly endorsed the pact. In 1936, the Jewish Agency (the Zionist "shadow government" in Palestine) took over direct control of the Ha'avara, which remained in effect until the Second World War forced its abandonment.

Some German officials opposed the arrangement. Germany's Consul General in Jerusalem, Hans D_hle, for example, sharply criticized the Agreement on several occasions during 1937. He pointed out that it cost Germany the foreign exchange that the products exported to Palestine through the pact would bring if sold elsewhere. The Ha'avara monopoly sale of German goods to Palestine through a Jewish agency naturally angered German businessmen and Arabs there. Official German support for Zionism could lead to a loss of German markets throughout the Arab world. The British government also resented the arrangement.34 A June 1937 German Foreign Office internal bulletin referred to the "foreign exchange sacrifices" that resulted from the Ha'avara. 35

A December 1937 internal memorandum by the German Interior Ministry reviewed the impact of the Transfer Agreement: "There is no doubt that the Ha'avara arrangement has contributed most significantly to the very rapid development of Palestine since 1933. The Agreement provided not only the largest source of money (from Germany!), but also the most intelligent group of immigrants, and finally it brought to the country the machines and industrial products essential for development." The main advantage of the pact, the memo reported, was the emigration of large numbers of Jews to Palestine, the most desirable target country as far as Germany was concerned. But the paper also noted the important drawbacks pointed out by Consul D_hle and others. The Interior Minister, it went on, had concluded that the disadvantages of the agreement now outweighed the advantages and that, therefore, it should be terminated. 36

Only one man could resolve the controversy. Hitler personally reviewed the policy in July and September 1937, and again in January 1938, and each time decided to maintain the Ha'avara arrangement. The goal of removing Jews from Germany, he concluded, justified the drawbacks. 37

The Reich Economics Ministry helped to organize another transfer company, the International Trade and Investment Agency, or Intria, through which Jews in foreign countries could help German Jews emigrate to Palestine. Almost $900,000 was eventually channeled through the Intria to German Jews in Palestine.38 Other European countries eager to encourage Jewish emigration concluded agreements with the Zionists modeled after the Ha'avara. In 1937 Poland authorized the Halifin (Hebrew for "exchange") transfer company. By late summer 1939, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Hungary and Italy had signed similar arrangements. The outbreak of war in September 1939, however, prevented large-scale implementation of these agreements. 39


Achievements of Ha'avara

Between 1933 and 1941, some 60,000 German Jews emigrated to Palestine through the Ha'avara and other German-Zionist arrangements, or about ten percent of Germany's 1933 Jewish population. (These German Jews made up about 15 percent of Palestine's 1939 Jewish population.) Some Ha'avara emigrants transferred considerable personal wealth from Germany to Palestine. As Jewish historian Edwin Black has noted: "Many of these people, especially in the late 1930s, were allowed to transfer actual replicas of their homes and factories - indeed rough replicas of their very existence."40

The total amount transferred from Germany to Palestine through the Ha'avara between August 1933 and the end of 1939 was 8.1 million pounds or 139.57 million German marks (then equivalent to more than $40 million). This amount included 33.9 million German marks ($13.8 million) provided by the Reichsbank in connection with the Agreement.41

Historian Black has estimated that an additional $70 million may have flowed into Palestine through corollary German commercial agreements and special international banking transactions. The German funds had a major impact on a country as underdeveloped as Palestine was in the 1930s, he pointed out. Several major industrial enterprises were built with the capital from Germany, including the Mekoroth waterworks and the Lodzia textile firm. The influx of Ha'avara goods and capital, concluded Black, "produced an economic explosion in Jewish Palestine" and was "an indispensable factor in the creation of the State of Israel."42

The Ha'avara agreement greatly contributed to Jewish development in Palestine and thus, indirectly, to the foundation of the Israeli state. A January 1939 German Foreign Office circular bulletin reported, with some misgiving, that "the transfer of Jewish property out of Germany [through the Ha'avara agreement] contributed to no small extent to the building of a Jewish state in Palestine."43

Former officials of the Ha'avara company in Palestine confirmed this view in a detailed study of the Transfer Agreement published in 1972: "The economic activity made possible by the influx German capital and the Haavara transfers to the private and public sectors were of greatest importance for the country's development. Many new industries and commercial enterprises were established in Jewish Palestine, and numerous companies that are enormously important even today in the economy of the State of Israel owe their existence to the Haavara."44 Dr. Ludwig Pinner, a Ha'avara company official in Tel Aviv during the 1930s, later commented that the exceptionally competent Ha'avara immigrants "decisively contributed" to the economic, social, cultural and educational development of Palestine's Jewish community.45

The Transfer Agreement was the most far-reaching example of cooperation between Hitler's Germany and international Zionism. Through this pact, Hitler's Third Reich did more than any other government during the 1930s to support Jewish development in Palestine.


Zionists Offer a Military Alliance With Hitler

In early January 1941 a small but important Zionist organization submitted a formal proposal to German diplomats in Beirut for a military-political alliance with wartime Germany. The offer was made by the radical underground "Fighters for the Freedom of Israel," better known as the Lehi or Stern Gang. Its leader, Avraham Stern, had recently broken with the radical nationalist "National Military Organization" (Irgun Zvai Leumi) over the group's attitude toward Britain, which had effectively banned further Jewish settlement of Palestine. Stern regarded Britain as the main enemy of Zionism.

This remarkable Zionist proposal "for the solution of the Jewish question in Europe and the active participation of the NMO [Lehi] in the war on the side of Germany" is worth quoting at some length:46

In their speeches and statements, the leading statesmen of National Socialist Germany have often emphasized that a New Order in Europe requires as a prerequisite a radical solution of the Jewish question by evacuation. ("Jew-free Europe")

The evacuation of the Jewish masses from Europe is a precondition for solving the Jewish question. However, the only way this can be totally achieved is through settlement of these masses in the homeland of the Jewish people, Palestine, and by the establishment of a Jewish state in its historical boundaries.

The goal of the political activity and the years of struggle by the Israel Freedom Movement, the National Military Organization in Palestine (Irgun Zvai Leumi), is to solve the Jewish problem in this way and thus completely liberate the Jewish people forever.

The NMO, which is very familiar with the good will of the German Reich government and its officials towards Zionist activities within Germany and the Zionist emigration program, takes that view that:

1. Common interests can exist between a European New Order based on the German concept and the true national aspirations of the Jewish people as embodied by the NMO.

2. Cooperation is possible between the New Germany and a renewed, folkish-national Jewry [Hebr_ertum].

3. The establishment of the historical Jewish state on a national and totalitarian basis, and bound by treaty with the German Reich, would be in the interest of maintaining and strengthening the future German position of power in the Near East.

On the basis of these considerations, and upon the condition that the German Reich government recognize the national aspirations of the Israel Freedom Movement mentioned above, the NMO in Palestine offers to actively take part in the war on the side of Germany.

This offer by the NMO could include military, political and informational activity within Palestine and, after certain organizational measures, outside as well. Along with this the Jewish men of Europe would be militarily trained and organized in military units under the leadership and command of the NMO. They would take part in combat operations for the purpose of conquering Palestine, should such a front by formed.

The indirect participation of the Israel Freedom Movement in the New Order of Europe, already in the preparatory stage, combined with a positive-radical solution of the European Jewish problem on the basis of the national aspirations of the Jewish people mentioned above, would greatly strengthen the moral foundation of the New Order in the eyes of all humanity.

The cooperation of the Israel Freedom Movement would also be consistent with a recent speech by the German Reich Chancellor, in which Hitler stressed that he would utilize any combination and coalition in order to isolate and defeat England.

There is no record of any German response. Acceptance was very unlikely anyway because by this time German policy was decisively pro-Arab.47 Remarkably, Stern's group sought to conclude a pact with the Third Reich at a time when stories that Hitler was bent on exterminating Jews were already in wide circulation. Stern apparently either did not believe the stories or he was willing to collaborate with the mortal enemy of his people to help bring about a Jewish state. 48

An important Lehi member at the time the group made this offer was Yitzhak Shamir, who later served as Israel's Foreign Minister and then, during much of the 1980s and until June 1992, as Prime Minister. As Lehi operations chief following Stern's death in 1942, Shamir organized numerous acts of terror, including the November 1944 assassination of British Middle East Minister Lord Moyne and the September 1948 slaying of Swedish United Nations mediator Count Bernadotte. Years later, when Shamir was asked about the 1941 offer, he confirmed that he was aware of his organization's proposed alliance with wartime Germany. 49



In spite of the basic hostility between the Hitler regime and international Jewry, for several years Jewish Zionist and German National Socialist interests coincided. In collaborating with the Zionists for a mutually desirable and humane solution to a complex problem, the Third Reich was willing to make foreign exchange sacrifices, impair relations with Britain and anger the Arabs. Indeed, during the 1930s no nation did more to substantively further Jewish-Zionist goals than Hitler's Germany.



1. W. Martini, "Hebr_isch unterm Hakenkreuz," Die Welt (Hamburg), Jan. 10, 1975. Cited in: Klaus Polken, "The Secret Contacts: Zionism and Nazi Germany, 1933-1941," Journal of Palestine Studies, Spring-Summer 1976, p. 65.
2. Quoted in: Ingrid Weckert, Feuerzeichen: Die "Reichskristallnacht" (T_bingen: Grabert, 1981), p. 212. See also: Th. Herzl, The Jewish State (New York: Herzl Press, 1970), pp. 33, 35, 36, and, Edwin Black, The Transfer Agreement (New York: Macmillan, 1984), p. 73.
3. Th. Herzl, "Der Kongress," Welt, June 4, 1897. Reprinted in: Theodor Herzls zionistische Schriften (Leon Kellner, ed.), erster Teil, Berlin: J_discher Verlag, 1920, p. 190 (and p. 139).
4. Memo of June 21, 1933, in: L. Dawidowicz, A Holocaust Reader (New York: Behrman, 1976), pp. 150-155, and (in part) in: Francis R. Nicosia, The Third Reich and the Palestine Question (Austin: Univ. of Texas, 1985), p. 42.; On Zionism in Germany before Hitler's assumption of power, see: Donald L. Niewyk, The Jews in Weimar Germany (Baton Rouge: 1980), pp. 94-95, 126-131, 140-143.; F. Nicosia, Third Reich (Austin: 1985), pp. 1-15.
5. J_dische Rundschau (Berlin), June 13, 1933. Quoted in: Heinz H_hne, The Order of the Death's Head (New York: Ballantine, pb., 1971, 1984), pp. 376-377.
6. Heinz H_hne, The Order of the Death's Head (Ballantine, 1971, 1984), p. 376.
7. "Berlin," Encyclopaedia Judaica (New York & Jerusalem: 1971), Vol. 5, p. 648. For a look at one aspect of this "vigorous life," see: J.-C. Horak, "Zionist Film Propaganda in Nazi Germany," Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television, Vol. 4, No. 1, 1984, pp. 49-58.
8. Francis R. Nicosia, The Third Reich and the Palestine Question (1985), pp. 54-55.; Karl A. Schleunes, The Twisted Road to Auschwitz (Urbana: Univ. of Illinois, 1970, 1990), pp. 178-181.
9. Jacob Boas, "A Nazi Travels to Palestine," History Today (London), January 1980, pp. 33-38.
10. Facsimile reprint of front page of Das Schwarze Korps, May 15, 1935, in: Janusz Piekalkiewicz, Israels Langer Arm (Frankfurt: Goverts, 1975), pp. 66-67. Also quoted in: Heinz H_hne, The Order of the Death's Head (Ballantine, 1971, 1984), p. 377. See also: Erich Kern, ed., Verheimlichte Dokumente (Munich: FZ-Verlag, 1988), p. 184.
11. Das Schwarze Korps, Sept. 26, 1935. Quoted in: F. Nicosia, The Third Reich and the Palestine Question (1985), pp. 56-57.
12. Lenni Brenner, Zionism in the Age of the Dictators (1983), p. 83.
13. F. Nicosia, The Third Reich and the Palestine Question (1985), p. 60. See also: F. Nicosia, "The Yishuv and the Holocaust," The Journal of Modern History (Chicago), Vol. 64, No. 3, Sept. 1992, pp. 533-540.
14. F. Nicosia, The Third Reich and the Palestine Question (1985), p. 57.
15. J_dische Rundschau, Sept. 17, 1935. Quoted in: Yitzhak Arad, with Y. Gutman and A. Margaliot, eds., Documents on the Holocaust (Jerusalem: Yad Vashem, 1981), pp. 82-83.
16. Der Angriff, Dec. 23, 1935, in: E. Kern, ed., Verheimlichte Dokumente (Munich: 1988), p. 148.; F. Nicosia, Third Reich (1985), p. 56.; L. Brenner, Zionism in the Age of the Dictators (1983), p. 138.; A. Margaliot, "The Reaction...," Yad Vashem Studies (Jerusalem), vol. 12, 1977, pp. 90-91.; On Kareski's remarkable career, see: H. Levine, "A Jewish Collaborator in Nazi Germany," Central European History (Atlanta), Sept. 1975, pp. 251-281.
17. "Dr. Wise Urges Jews to Declare Selves as Such," New York Herald Tribune, June 13, 1938, p. 12.
18. F. Nicosia, The Third Reich (1985), p. 53.
19. Lucy Dawidowicz, The War Against the Jews, 1933-1945 (New York: Bantam, pb., 1976), pp. 253-254.; Max Nussbaum, "Zionism Under Hitler," Congress Weekly (New York: American Jewish Congress), Sept. 11, 1942.; F. Nicosia, The Third Reich (1985), pp. 58-60, 217.; Edwin Black, The Transfer Agreement (1984), p. 175.
20. H. H_hne, The Order of the Death's Head (Ballantine, pb., 1984), pp. 380-382.; K. Schleunes, Twisted Road (1970, 1990), p. 226.; Secret internal SS intelligence report about F. Polkes, June 17, 1937, in: John Mendelsohn, ed., The Holocaust (New York: Garland, 1982), vol. 5, pp. 62-64.
21. F. Nicosia, Third Reich (1985), pp. 63-64, 105, 219-220.
22. F. Nicosia, Third Reich (1985), p. 160.
23. This distinction is also implicit in the "Balfour Declaration" of November 1917, in which the British government expressed support for "a national home for the Jewish people" in Palestine, while carefully avoiding any mention of a Jewish state. Referring to the majority Arab population there, the Declaration went on to caution, " being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine." The complete text of the Declaration is reproduced in facsimile in: Robert John, Behind the Balfour Declaration (IHR, 1988), p. 32.
24. F. Nicosia, Third Reich (1985), p. 121.
25. F. Nicosia, Third Reich (1985), p. 124.
26. David Yisraeli, The Palestine Problem in German Politics 1889-1945 (Bar-Ilan University, Israel, 1974), p. 300.; Also in: Documents on German Foreign Policy, Series D, Vol. 5. Doc. No. 564 or 567.
27. K. Schleunes, The Twisted Road (1970, 1990), p. 209.
28. Circular of January 25, 1939. Nuremberg document 3358-PS. International Military Tribunal, Trial of the Major War Criminals Before the International Military Tribunal (Nuremberg: 1947-1949), vol. 32, pp. 242-243. Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression (Washington, DC: 1946-1948), vol. 6, pp. 92-93.
29. F. Nicosia, Third Reich (1985), pp. 141-144.; On Hitler's critical view of Zionism in Mein Kampf, see esp. Vol. 1, Chap. 11. Quoted in: Robert Wistrich, Hitler's Apocalypse (London: 1985), p. 155.; See also: F. Nicosia, Third Reich (1985), pp. 26-28.; Hitler told his army adjutant in 1939 and again in 1941 that he had asked the British in 1937 about transferring all of Germany's Jews to Palestine or Egypt. The British rejected the proposal, he said, because it would cause further disorder. See: H. v. Kotze, ed., Heeresadjutant bei Hitler (Stuttgart: 1974), pp. 65, 95.
30. F. Nicosia, Third Reich (1985), pp. 156, 160-164, 166-167.; H. H_hne, The Order of the Death's Head (Ballantine, pb., 1984), pp. 392-394.; Jon and David Kimche, The Secret Roads (London: Secker & Warburg, 1955), pp. 39-43. See also: David Yisraeli, "The Third Reich and Palestine," Middle Eastern Studies, October 1971, p. 347.; Bernard Wasserstein, Britain and the Jews of Europe, 1939-1945 (1979), pp. 43, 49, 52, 60.; T. Kelly, "Man who fooled Nazis," Washington Times, April 28, 1987, pp. 1B, 4B. Based on interview with Willy Perl, author of The Holocaust Conspiracy.
31. Y. Arad, et al., eds., Documents On the Holocaust (1981), p. 155. (The training kibbutz was at Neuendorf, and may have functioned even after March 1942.)
32. On the Agreement in general, see: Werner Feilchenfeld, et al., Haavara-Transfer nach Pal_stina (T_bingen: Mohr/Siebeck, 1972).; David Yisraeli, "The Third Reich and the Transfer Agreement," Journal of Contemporary History (London), No. 2, 1971, pp. 129-148.; "Haavara," Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971), vol. 7, pp. 1012-1013.; F. Nicosia, The Third Reich and the Palestine Question (Austin: 1985), pp. 44-49.; Raul Hilberg, The Destruction of the European Jews (New York: Holmes & Meier, 1985), pp. 140-141.; The Transfer Agreement, by Edwin Black, is detailed and useful. However, it contains numerous inaccuracies and wildly erroneous conclusions. See, for example, the review by Richard S. Levy in Commentary, Sept. 1984, pp. 68-71.
33. E. Black, The Transfer Agreement (1984), pp. 328, 337.
34. On opposition to the Ha'avara in official German circles, see: W. Feilchenfeld, et al., Haavara-Transfer nach Pal_stina (1972), pp. 31-33.; D. Yisraeli, "The Third Reich," Journal of Contemporary History, 1971, pp. 136-139.; F. Nicosia, The Third Reich and the Palestine Question, pp. 126-139.; I. Weckert, Feuerzeichen (1981), pp. 226-227.; Rolf Vogel, Ein Stempel hat gefehlt (Munich: Droemer Knaur, 1977), pp. 110 ff.
35. W. Feilchenfeld, et al., Haavara-Transfer (1972), p. 31. Entire text in: David Yisraeli, The Palestine Problem in German Politics 1889-1945 (Israel: 1974), pp. 298-300.
36. Interior Ministry internal memo (signed by State Secretary W. Stuckart), Dec. 17, 1937, in: Helmut Eschwege, ed., Kennzeichen J (Berlin: 1966), pp. 132-136.
37. W. Feilchenfeld, et al, Haavara-Transfer (1972), p. 32.
38. E. Black, Transfer Agreement, pp. 376-377.
39. E. Black, Transfer Agreement (1984), pp. 376, 378.; F. Nicosia, Third Reich (1985), pp. 238-239 (n. 91).
40. E. Black, Transfer Agreement, p. 379.; F. Nicosia, Third Reich, pp. 212, 255 (n. 66).
41. W. Feilchenfeld, et al., Haavara-Transfer, p. 75.; "Haavara," Encyclopaedia Judaica, (1971), Vol. 7, p. 1013.
42. E. Black, Transfer Agreement, pp. 379, 373, 382.
43. Circular of January 25, 1939. Nuremberg document 3358-PS. International Military Tribunal, Trial of the Major War Criminals Before the International Military Tribunal (Nuremberg: 1947-1949), Vol. 32, pp. 242-243.
44. Werner Feilchenfeld, et al., Haavara-Transfer nach Pal_stina (T_bingen: Mohr/Siebeck, 1972). Quoted in: Ingrid Weckert, Feuerzeichen (T_bingen: Grabert, 1981), pp. 222-223.
45. W. Feilchenfeld, et al., Haavara-Transfer nach Pal_stina (1972). Quoted in: I. Weckert, Feuerzeichen (1981), p. 224.
46. Original document in German Ausw_rtiges Amt Archiv, Bestand 47-59, E 224152 and E 234155-58. (Photocopy in author's possession).; Complete original German text published in: David Yisraeli, The Palestine Problem in German Politics 1889-1945 (Israel: 1974), pp. 315-317. See also: Klaus Polkhen, "The Secret Contacts," Journal of Palestine Studies, Spring-Summer 1976, pp. 78-80.; (At the time this offer was made, Stern's Lehi group still regarded itself as the true Irgun/NMO.)
47. Arab nationalists opposed Britain, which then dominated much of the Arab world, including Egypt, Iraq and Palestine. Because Britain and Germany were at war, Germany cultivated Arab support. The leader of Palestine's Arabs, the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, Haj Amin el-Husseini, worked closely with Germany during the war years. After escaping from Palestine, he spoke to the Arab world over German radio and helped raise Muslim recruits in Bosnia for the Waffen SS.
48. Israel Shahak, "Yitzhak Shamir, Then and Now," Middle East Policy (Washington, DC), Vol. 1, No. 1, (Whole No. 39), 1992, pp. 27-38.; Yehoshafat Harkabi, Israel's Fateful Hour (New York: Harper & Row, 1988), pp. 213-214. Quoted in: Andrew J. Hurley, Israel and the New World Order (Santa Barbara, Calif.: 1991), pp. 93, 208-209.; Avishai Margalit, "The Violent Life of Yitzhak Shamir," New York Review of Books, May 14, 1992, pp. 18-24.; Lenni Brenner, Zionism in the Age of the Dictators (1983), pp. 266-269.; L. Brenner, Jews in America Today (1986), pp. 175-177.; L. Brenner, "Yitzhak Shamir: On Hitler's Side," Arab Perspectives (League of Arab States), March 1984, pp. 11-13.
49. Avishai Margalit, "The Violent Life of Yitzhak Shamir," New York Review of Books, May 14, 1992, pp. 18 - 24.; Lenni Brenner, Zionism in the Age of the Dictators (1983), pp. 266-269.; L. Brenner, Jews in America Today (1986), pp. 175-177.; L. Brenner, "Skeletons in Shamir's Cupboard," Middle East International, Sept. 30, 1983, pp. 15-16.; Sol Stern, L. Rapoport, "Israel's Man of the Shadows," Village Voice (New York), July 3, 1984, pp. 13 ff.

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